Open Access Original Research Article

Combustion Behaviour of Diesel Engine Operated with Water Emulsified Diesel

Neeraj Kumar, Rajendra Machavaram, Hifjur Raheman

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36361

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the combustion behaviour of a constant speed, 5.5 kW, 4-stroke, single-cylinder, water cooled, direct injection (DI) diesel engine fueled with water emulsified diesel. Water emulsified diesel prepared with 20% water/diesel ratio, 0.9% surfactant amount at 2200 rpm of stirrer with hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value 4.3 was checked for fuel properties. The cylinder gas pressure (CGP) was higher in water emulsified diesel as compared to diesel for similar engine loading. The peak CGP was found to be 95.86 and 95.18 bar for water emulsified diesel and diesel, respectively at full engine load. At higher engine load, better turbulence of combustible mixture and oxidation of soot particles by OH radicals in water emulsified diesel helped in raising the peak rate of pressure rise. A higher ignition delay was observed in the combustion of water emulsified diesel. Water  emulsified diesel exhibited ignition delay of 23, 21, 19, 18 and 17 degree crank angle (°CA) at no load, 25, 50, 75 and 100% load, respectively as compared to  20, 20, 18, 14, and 9°CA with diesel for similar engine loading. The longer ignition delay period in water emulsified diesel helped in burning of more fuel leading to higher instantaneous heat release rate (Qn). At full engine load, its value was found to be 223.06 and 207.90 J/°CA for water emulsified diesel and diesel, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Case Study of Fire Flame Resistance Improvement of a Plywood Board Coated with Paint Containing Added Rice Husk Amorphous Silica

Ryoko Sekifuji, Chieu Le Van, Masafumi Tateda

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36412

Aims: Rice husks constitute an issue of concern for stakeholders interested in rice production; on the other hand, rice husk silica has been recognized as a valuable resource for industrial uses. Thermal insulation is a potential industrial benefit offered by silica. In this study, thermal resistance of rice husk silica, especially its resistance to fire flame, was investigated. It was found that rice husk ash should be ground for obtaining the desired effects.

Study Design: Time of burning out and the temperature increase rate were obtained for evaluating thermal resistance of rice husks.  The former was the time from the launch of the fire flame to when the plywood board was burned. The latter was the temperature increase rate on the plywood board within 60 s.

Place and Duration of Study: Experiments were conducted at Toyama Prefectural University and the duration was between April 2016 and March 2017.

Methodology: Paints that contained 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% of rice husk ash (as is) by weight were prepared and one side of plywood boards (2.5 mm in thickness and 100 mm x 100 mm in area) were coated with these paints. After painting, the boards were dried for one day at ambient temperature. Each board was set in an upright position on a stable foundation and a fire flame (3.5 kW) was launched from a handheld burner from a distance of 0.1 m toward the board. The time from the launch of the fire flame to when the area demarcated by the red circle on the back side of the board was burned was measured and recorded.

Results: The following results were obtained in this study. Rice husk ash showed fire flame resistance. Ground rice husk ash was better than the as-is rice husk ash in terms of handling and offering fire flame resistance. The fire flame resistance increased as the ash contents increased up to 20% and it decreased drastically beyond 20%. The sample with 15% ash content showed the highest temperature resistance. The sample with 20% ash content showed resistance for the longest duration.

Conclusion: The fire flame resistance increased as the ash contents increased up to 20% in weight and decreased drastically beyond 20%. The optimal ash contents were in the range of 15–20%. Thus, rice husk silica can be a useful resource that provides further advantages to stakeholders involved in rice production globally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Egg White Protein Powder Based Films Fortified with Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Essential Oils in the Storage of Çökelek Cheese

Nazan Kavas, Gökhan Kavas

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/35716

Edible film was produced by adding 1.5% sorbitol (w/v) to egg white protein powder (EWPP). The 1th batch of the çökelek cheese samples was coated with film fortified with basil essential oil (EOB) at concentrations [2% (v/v)]. The 2th batch of the çökelek cheese samples was coated exclusively with non-fortified EWPP and the 3th batch was left uncoated (Control). All of the cheese samples were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. All the samples were stored at +4±1°C. Their physicochemical and microbiological properties were examined on the 1st, 7th, 15th and 30th days of the storage. It was found that addition of 2% (v/v) EOB caused an increase in film thickness and consequently a decrease in water vapor permeability, weight loss and inner and outer hardness values. The relation between EOB addition and the increase in fat levels was significant (p<0.05). Microbial counts during storage were significant (p<0.05). Escherichia coli O157:H7 was the most resistant microorganism to the essential oils while Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluate the Eating Habits of Teachers Working in Various Primary Schools in Ankara

Melda Kangalgil, Hülya Yardimci, Ayşe Özfer Özçelik

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36397

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the eating habits of teachers working in various primary schools in Ankara.

Study Design: This was a cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Ankara, Turkey between February and May, 2012 in primary schools.

Methodology: The study was conducted with 200 teachers. Participants' frequencies of food consumption, eating habits, anthropometric measurements were collected face to face by questionnaire method.

Results: 76.0% of the participants were female and 24.0% were male. While more than half (56.0%) of the teachers consume three meals, the most skipped meals are morning (42.8%) and lunch (55.2%) meals. The most consumed food (38.4%) is fruit in both genders. Nutrient intake of teachers decreases when 46.5% of them are sad and when 37.5% of them are nervous, but for 65.5% of them this intake do not change in excitement (p <0.05). 23.5% of the teachers consume milk daily, 52.5% eat eggs 1-2 times a week, 39.0% eat green leafy vegetables, 52.5% eat fruits and 77.0% eat white bread on a daily basis. Apart from that the most consumed (91.0%) every day drink is tea.

Conclusion: In recent years, wrong nutrition habits and the incidence of chronic diseases related with these habits have increased in the society. Considering the teachers' correct nutritional habits on students, it is thought that it is important to have nutrition lessons in undergraduate curriculum and nutrition seminars in in-service training programs in teacher-educated schools.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Carbon Footprints of Staff in University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

S. A. Shomkegh, G. A. Iyorhon, E. T. Tembe

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/35787

Aims: The study was carried out to assess the carbon footprints of staff of three agricultural-based Colleges of the University of Agriculture, Makurdi.

Study Design and Methodology: Staff Departments, cadre (academic and non-academic) and gender were assessed using an online questionnaire by World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). Variables ranging from food consumption, home, travel and stuff were assessed among 120 respondents within the selected Colleges of the University. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data obtained.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in University of Agriculture, Makurdi between March, 2017 to May, 2017.

Results: The study revealed that, staff from the College of Animal Science had the highest carbon footprints of 597.60 tonnes/year, requiring approximately 3.90 planets to maintain their lifestyle. The Department of Animal Production had the highest carbon footprints of 314.80 tonnes/year among Departments investigated and required up to 4.00 planets. The academic staff had the highest cumulative carbon footprints of 880.40 tonnes, a lifestyle that could be accommodated within 6.20 planets. The female staff of the selected Colleges emitted higher than their male counterparts (893.20 tonnes/year), requiring 6.30 planets to continue with their lifestyles.

Conclusion: The footprints of staff in the Colleges studied were higher than the UK emission standard per capita per annum of 3.06 tonnes/year, indicating that they would need more than the earth to live in, if everyone else in the world adopted their lifestyles. The study recommends that adequate awareness on the negative impacts of high carbon emissions be carried out to help citizens reduce their carbon emissions in order to live within the limits of the earth.