Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Water Quality of Some Dug Wells and Boreholes in Gella, Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa State

Sudi, Ismaila Yada, James, Lami, Ahmed, Maryam Usman, Gideon, Henry Bulama, Zaruwa, Moses Zira

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34360

The present research was to assess the water quality of some dug wells and boreholes water in Gella, Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa State by determining its physicochemical properties, the level of heavy metals, and the coliform bacterial count of the water. Boreholes and dug wells are common source of drinking water in Gella, and many of these sources might be polluted which could lead to human illness or diseases. Five samples each of water from dug wells and boreholes were randomly selected from Malluha, Tongore, Sabon Layi, Manjivu’a, and Mbaga areas of Gella. The samples were collected using previously clean polyethene bottles, which were again washed and rinsed with the sample water before it was collected. The physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and bacterial count of the water samples was determined using standard methods. The result obtained are within the WHO desirable standard, however few of the outcome showed that they are either above or below it which is due to human activity around that area. Therefore regular monitoring of dug wells and boreholes needs to carry out in order to forestall the prevalence of epidemics of water borne microbial and parasitic diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Hybrid Simulation and Optimization Model for Rural Electrification

B. Adebanji, G. A. Adepoju, O. O. Fagbohun, P. K. Olulope

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36109

Optimal sizing of hybrid renewable energy system is very important in determining the overall performance of hybrid system in terms of cost, reliability and system integrity. However, most of the existing Hybrid Power System (HPS) models are very expensive and not suitable for rural electrification because of their inflexibility and lack of adaptability to suit local conditions. This is due to the unsuitable combination of renewable energy mix and sub-optimal sizing of the system components. A small hydro power plant-based hybrid model for feasibility assessment and optimal sizing of hybrid renewable energy system for rural areas is developed in this work. The HPS model consists of Small Hydro Power (SHP) generator, Photovoltaic (PV) system, Battery (BATT) bank and Diesel Generator (DG). MATLAB/Simulink simulation models were developed from the mathematical models for each of the HPS components. The developed models were integrated together and simulated to observe its ability to produce AC output voltage in meeting load demand. Genetic Algorithm was used for the optimal sizing of the system’s components for optimum configuration. The validity of the hybrid model was verified by comparing its results with Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) as a benchmark. The modeling of the component generators in Simulink was comparable to those obtained using HOMER. Both soft wares yielded very close results. The developed model when compared with some previous models has the added advantage of a wider space of parameters and better reliability. It is simple and can be modified according to the need of any particular project of choice. The model is useful in component sizing analysis before they are actually installed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Do the Impacts of Bad Governance Influence Carbon Dioxide Emissions in African Countries at Different Income Levels?

Abdulrasaki Saka

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/27664

Few studies actually investigated the impacts of bad governance (corruption) on carbon dioxide emissions in Africa at different income levels with population age structure and other driver-triggers playing moderating roles. This study uses a unique observation collected from the World Bank (2013) of 51 African sovereign countries to ask directly, what is the net impact of corruption on CO2 emissions, and to assess the relevance of a range of potential reasons for why the net impacts of corruption on CO2 emissions across African countries and see how this impacts varies per capita income, for the period 1960-2012. The study employs a panel dataset and used generalised least squares estimator to determine the net impacts of corruption on CO2 emissions (environmental impacts). The findings suggest that the average effect of corruption perception index over CO2 emissions, when the corruption perception index changes across time and between countries increases by 1%, CO2 emissions decreases by about 0.73%, 1.95% for low-income-countries-in-Africa and upper-income-countries-in-Africa respectively, when all other predictors are constant. The negative impacts created by the practice of corruption were found to be an important consideration for future researchers and as a vital factor in the determination of the driving forces of environmental impacts neglected by previous study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Developing Regression Models for Estimating Atmospheric Visibility over Ikeja, Nigeria

D. O. Akpootu, M. I. Iliyasu, W. Mustapha, S. Aruna, S. O. Yusuf

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36670

In this study, the meteorological parameters of measured monthly average daily visibility, mean temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and wind speed covering a period of 12-years were utilized to develop and evaluate one, two, three, four and five variable correlation models for the estimation of atmospheric visibility for Ikeja, Lagos State, South Western, Nigeria (Latitude 6.58°N, Longitude 3.33°E and altitude 40 m above sea level). The accuracy of the newly proposed models for all the variable correlations are statistically tested using correlation coefficient (R), coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Bias Error (MBE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Percentage Error (MPE) and t-test. Based on the overall results, the four variable visibility models relating the relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and wind speed was recommended having the highest values of R (98.9%), R2 (97.9%) and the lowest values of RMSE (0.1821 km) and MPE (0.4025%). The one variable visibility model relating the rainfall was recommended based on the lowest values of MBE (0.0012 km) and t-test (0.0038). The results of this study revealed that despite the very high values of R and R2 for the five variable correlation model, it is not appropriate for visibility estimation as it has very high values of MBE, RMSE, MPE and t-test as compared to other estimated models with high overestimation of the measured visibility values. The newly recommended visibility models can be used for estimating daily and monthly visibility with higher accuracy for Ikeja and regions with similar climatic information.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vitamins and Essential Minerals Contained in Mucilages of Four Food Plants, Abelmoschus esculentus, Beilschmiedia mannii, Corchorus olitorius and Irvingia gabonensis, from Côte d’lvoire

Olivier Yapo Assi, Daouda Sidibé, Adama Coulibaly, Romuald Makado Mahan, Henri Marius Godi Biego

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34476

Aims: The present work has for objective to determine vitamins and essential minerals contents in the mucilage of food plants from Ivorian flora.

Study Design: Mucilage food plants edible parts were dried, mucilage were extracted and vitamins and mineral analyzed.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Biosciences Unit, at Felix Houphouet-Boigny University between January and December 2014.

Methodology: The study was carried out on fruits of A. esculentus (okra), B. mannii (sran), I. gabonensis (kplé) and leaves of C. olitorius (kplala) collected. The mucilage of different plants has been extracted. Vitamins and mineral contents, daily intake and the contributions to daily recommended intake of mucilage have been evaluated.

Results: Mucilage contained in different plants is: B. mannii (63.00 +/- 2.69%), I. gabonensis (56.34 +/- 5.44%), A. esculentus (34.86 +/- 5.27%) and C. olitorius (25.81 +/- 4.13%). Concerning β- Carotene is present in A. esculentus (113 +/- 21.28 RE/100 g) and C. olitorius (245 +/- 15.10 RE/100 g). For vitamin contents, we have: thiamine (0.07 +/- 0.01 to 0.08 +/- 0.11 mg/100 g) and pyridoxine (0.01 +/- 0.01 to 0.05 +/- 0.001 mg/100 g). Different contents have been observed for mineral like K (1.26 +/- 0.04 to 3.16 +/- 0.06 g/100 g) and P (0.27 +/- 0.01 to 1.07 +/- 0.13 g/100 g). At the level of Ca and Mg, contents varied respectively from 0.03 +/- 0.01 to 0.79 +/- 0.05 g/100 g and from 18 +/- 0.09 to 1143 +/- 0.04 mg/100 g. Mucilage consumption generated different daily intake: β- carotene (7.91 +/- 0.25 to 44.10 +/- 5.34 mRE/day), α- tocopherol (0.04 +/- 0.41 to 1.22 +/- 0.05 µg/day), phylloquinone (0.02 +/- 0.47 to 0.09 +/- 0.04 µg/day) and thiamine (0.02 +/- 0.19 to 0.14 +/- 0.22 µg/day). For mineral, daily intake varied: K (1.10 +/- 0.74 to 3.20 +/- 0.05 mg/day), Ca (0.03 +/- 0.22 to 1.22 +/- 0.55 mg/day) and Fe (3 +/- 0.01 to 75 +/- 0.58 µg/day). The consumption of mucilage provided an increase in Ca and Fe in relation to mucilaginous plants.  

Conclusion: Mucilage extracted is rich in mineral. Mucilaginous plants consumption must be increase.