Open Access Short Research Article

Physico-Chemical Properties of Different Water Bodies of Manipur

Nabakishor Nongmaithem, Ch. Basudha

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36214

Assessment of physico-chemical parameters were carried out during April 2016 to March 2017 from ten different sites viz. site I (Langol bore well), site II (Thangmeiband pond) from Imphal west district; site III (Loktak lake), site IV (Thongjaorok river) of Bishnupur district; site V (Maha river), VI (stream), VII (pond) of Chandel district; site VIII (stream), IX (chuya spring), and X (kulu canal) from Senapati district of Manipur, India. Water quality parameters such as Temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen, Total alkalinity, Chloride and Nitrate were analyzed. The temperature ranged from 16-29oC showing higher in summer.The pH value was found to be ranged from 5.9 to 8.2. It’s indicating that pH is neutral to acidic in nature. The value of DO ranges from 3.2 to 12.8 ppm being highest in site ix (chuya spring of urkhul district). Total alkalinity was found to be higher in winter and low in summer season. The values of total Alkalinity range from 20 to 190 ppm. Chloride content varies from 10ppm-25ppm.The chloride content reached their maximum value during summer. Nitrate concentration range from 0.153-0.548 ppm due to run off water from agriculture field, municipal sewage from market place and other effluents containing nitrogen species. The results indicated that most of the physico-chemical parameters from ten different sites of Manipur districts were within the WHO limits for drinking water and, therefore may be suitable for domestic purposes. This conclusion is based on 6 parameters tested. It is possible that water quality would be worse if more parameters will be examined, eg. Bacteriology.

Open Access Short Research Article

Preparation and Properties of Nanocellulose from Peracetic Flax Pulp

V. Barbash , O. Yashchenko , A. Kedrovska

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36571

The aim of the study was to obtain a pulp by ecology safer method from flax fibers and nanocellulose from organosolvent flax pulp (OFP) by acid hydrolysis and to investigate of its quality indexes. The OFP has been obtained by cooking in solution of peracetic acid. For obtaining of nanocellulose the hydrolysis of OFP by sulfuric acid with concentration of 43%, 50% and 64% at temperature 30 - 60°C during 30 and 90 min was carried out. The hydrolyzed OFP was washed by many times centrifugation at 8000 rev/min with distilled water until reaching neutral pH. Further ultrasonic treatment of the nanocellulose suspension from 30 to 60 minutes facilitated the formation of a nanocellulose gel, which was dried on Petri dishes to obtain transparent films. The optimal parameters of hydrolysis process are: concentration of sulfuric acid – 43%, temperature - 60°C duration 60 min. The obtained peracetic flax nanocellulose had degree of crystallinity – 62%, particles with diameter less than 60 nm, which is confirmed by AFM data; the transparency of received films was determined by electron absorption spectra and is more than 60%; the tensile strength up to 70 MPa and Young's module up to 9,0 GPa. The obtained nanocellulose had highest thermal stability compared to the OFP, which established by TGA. The method of obtaining peracetic flax nanocellulose allows obtaining a product with high quality indexes, which can be used in the production of different composite materials and optoelectronics. These predictors, however, need further work to validate reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Construction of Implicit One-step Block Hybrid Methods with Multiple Off-grid Points for the Solution of Stiff Differential Equations

Y. Skwame , J. Sabo , T. Y. Kyagya

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36187

This paper is focused on the construction and implementation of implicit one-step hybrid block methods for the solution of stiff ordinary differential equation. The research further investigates the basic properties of implicit one-step block hybrid method. We noticed that the moment the value of an error constant is positive, the order is odd. And when the value of an error constant is negative then the order P is of even number and the block hybrid method with three off-grid point is of uniform order. The performance of the methods was demonstrated on some stiff initial value problems (IVPs). The result revealed that the hybrid block methods are efficient, accurate and convergent on some stiff ordinary differential equations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Induced Synthesis of Defense Enzymes during Induced Resistance against Early Blight of Potato Using Plant Extracts as Inducer

Virendra Kumar , S. K. Biswas , V. Tilak Chowdary , Kishan Lal , Prem Naresh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36560

Aim: To find out the defense enzymes synthesis due to pre-application of plant extracts as inducers.

Study of Design: The experiment was conducted in glass house condition using three replications. The standard statistical analysis was done to find out the variance.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plant Pathology, CSA University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur Uttar Pradesh, India during 2012-2014.

Methodology: Standard methodology was followed to conduct the experiment.

Results: Among the 11 plants extracts viz. Parthenium hysterophorus, Lantana camara, Physalis, Melilotus albus, Datura stromonium, Solanum nigrum, Achyranthus asperaSalix sp., Thevetia peruviana, Duranta erecta, Polyalthia longifolia as inducers, the maximum increased level of defense enzymes POD, PPO and PAL were found in Lantana camara treated potato leaves.

Conclusion: Pre treatment with plant extracts as inducer provided induced resistance in plant against A. solani resulting declined in disease severity and also increase the elevated level of defense related enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparitive Evaluation of Different Fungicides against Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Causing Late Blight of Potato

Sumit Kumar , S. K. Biswas , V. Tilak Chowdary , Virendra Kumar , Kishan Lal , Anuj Bansal

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36576

Aim: Evaluation of various fungicides and their effectiveness at different doses against Phytophthora infestans, the causal pathogen of late blight disease of potato.

Study Design: Descriptive statistics was used and each treatment was replicated thrice using complete randomize design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plant Pathology, CSA University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India in October 2016.

Methodology: We followed “Food Poison Technique” [1] to find out the relative efficacy of various fungicides in Inhibiting the growth of pathogen.

A small piece of infected leaf from border of sporulating lesion along with some healthy green tissue was cut and Sterilized. These small pieces were then placed on tomato extract based media which was previously poured in sterilized Petri plates. As soon as the mycelia growth is noticed around the bits, the pathogen was purified by hyphal tip culture method. Mycelial bits of 5 mm from the pure culture were placed on the tomato extract media which was incorporated with various fungicides at different doses.

Results: Among the five different fungicides Metalaxyl inhibited the mycelial growth upto 99.2% over the control at 300 ppm concentration followed by 98.44% inhibition at 300 ppm concentration mancozeb at 400 ppm concentration inhibited the radial growth upto 96.62% followed by 95.27% inhibition at 300 ppm concentration.

Conclusion: This method can be used for Analysing the efficacy of various fungicides against different pathogens within a very short period of time.