Open Access Original Research Article

Combined Anti-diabetic Effects of Extracts of Artemisia annua var. chiknensis (CBGE/CHNA/09/LTNGS/G) and Each of Three Other Plants (Momordica charantia Linn. Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Aegle marmelos Correa) Traditionally Used in Nigeria for the Treatment of Diabetes

C. I. C. Ogbonna , A. I. Ogbonna , I. A. Onyimba , J. U. Itelima , A. F. Umar , N. Onyezili , M. F. Istifanus

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36375

The combined anti-diabetic effects of Extracts of Artemisia annua var. chiknensis with Laboratory code number (CBGE/CHINA/09/LTNGS/G), Momordica charantia Linn, Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Aegle marmelos Correa traditionally employed in Nigeria for the treatment of diabetes were studied. Fifty male albino rats which had been subjected to overnight fasting were rendered diabetic through single intraperitoneal alloxan injections (120 mg/kg body weight). They were then divided into 5 batches of ten rats each. The first batch was treated with A. annua leaf extract only. The second batch was treated with a combination of A. annua and M. charantia extracts. The third batch was treated with a combination of A. annua and V. amygdalina extracts while the fourth batch was treated with a combination of A. annua and Aegle marmelos extracts. The extracts were used in the ratio of 1:1 and treatment was done twice daily for a period of 30 days. The fifth batch of diabetic rats was not treated and thus served as control. The sixth batch of non-diabetic rats (10) was set up for comparison. Both the A. annua extract and its various combinations with the other experimental plant extracts resulted in insulin level enhancements and fasting blood glucose level reductions of the diabetic rats. There were significant differences (P≤0.05) in the insulin level of diabetic rats treated with A. annua leaf extract alone and those treated with different combinations of the plant extracts. The mean effects of the extracts on insulin and fasting blood glucose levels were most significant in A. annua + M. charantia (38.65 µlU/ml and 87.55 mg/dl) and A. annua A. marmelos (38.55 µlU/ml and 87.92 mg/dl) treatments at P≤0.05. The non-treated diabetic rats had an average body weight of 94.90 g as compared to the original average body weight of 100 g at the commencement of the study. The treated diabetic rats had average body weight increments from 108.83g to 109.29 g. The non-diabetic rats had an average body weight of 114.10 g as compared to their initial average body weight of 100 g. The experimental plants were found to contain various biochemical constituents which were probably responsible for the blood serum insulin level enhancements and fasting blood glucose level reductions.

The results obtained have shown that the A. annua leaf extract and its combinations with the other plant extracts could be employed in the management of hyperglycemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Fibrinolytic Enzyme Production from Bacillus sp. IND6 in Solid State Fermentation

Mohammed A. Almalki , D. S. Deepa Dhas , Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36748

Aims: This study aimed to screen and optimize Bacillus sp. IND6 for fibrinolytic enzymes production. The process parameters were optimized to enhance the production of fibrinolytic enzyme in solid state fermentation using wheat bran substrate.

Methodology: In this study fibrinolytic enzyme production was carried out using Bacillus sp. IND6 in solid-state fermentation. Wheat bran was used as the substrate.  The process parameters were optimized using traditional one-variable-at-a-time approach.

Results: The significant increase in fibrinolytic enzyme production was occurred when this organism was grown up to 72 h (1310 ± 31.6 U/g), at pH 9.0 (1417.4 ± 73.2 U/g) with 90% moisture content (1441.2 ± 77.4 U/g). Among the carbon sources, starch significantly enhanced enzyme production (1713.8 ± 53.9 U/g). 

Conclusion: Bacillus sp. IND6 could be the good source of fibrinolytic enzymes for various biotechnological applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Residual β-carotene and Cyanide Levels in Gari Produced from Unfermented Yellow Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Using Local Processing Method

V. E. Osagie , I. A. Onimawo , O. E. Alamu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36428

Aims: This study was carried out to determine the level of the retained β-carotene in processing yellow cassava (variety IITA TMS 01/1371 or UMUCASS 38) into gari using local processing method, in addition, it was also carried out to determine the residual cyanide after processing (fermented and unfermented) the yellow-fleshed cassava into gari.

Place of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma and International Institute for Tropical Agriculture Ibadan.

Methodology: High performance liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the level of β-carotene in gari produced from fermented and unfermented yellow cassava while the cyanide level was determined by an automated Enzymic method.

Results and Discussion: It showed that the gari produced from fermented yellow cassava had a higher level of β-carotene depending on the number of days of fermentation compared with the gari from unfermented yellow cassava. The gari produced from unfermented cassava had the least content of β-carotene (8.076±0.311 ug/g) during the first week of storage compared with those produced from fermented cassava (10.600±0.470 - 20.610±0.098 ug/g). There was a reduction in the β-carotene contents in all groups during the 5week storage period. The rate of loss of β-carotene over a five week period showed that the gari from unfermented cassava had the least rate of loss (0.885 ug/week) compared with the gari from fermented cassava over the same period (0.955-2.447 ug/week). However the level of Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) retained was more in the gari from unfermented yellow cassava (3.160±0.006 mg/100 g) compared with the gari from fermented cassava (0.470±0.046-1.423±0.006 mg/100 g).

Conclusion: On the basis of the result, it is suggested that yellow cassava should be fermented before being roasted into gari and adequate method of storage be adopted to reduce loss of β-carotene while in storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of Sources of Self-Knowledge Scale in Iranian Population

Seyyed Jalal Younesi , Mojtaba Abbasi Asl , Mohamad Rostami , Amir Habibi , Javad Kazemi , Hamideh Sadat Siahpoushha

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/35584

Objective: The purpose of this study was development and validation of self-knowledge sources scale of Iranian people.

Methods: The design of the study was an ex post facto and a survey   study to be carried out in data collection. The population included all People between the ages of 20 to 60 year’s old living in Tehran. 800 subjects were selected using stratified sampling method. To collect data, Self-Knowledge Sources Scale was used. The validity and reliability of Self Knowledge Sources Scale were measured at among men and women.

Results: The results indicated that Self-Knowledge Sources Scale has reasonable internal reliability and Coefficient alpha estimates of internal reliability were 0/861. Split-half correlation between the 15 questions of Self Knowledge Sources Scale equals 79/0 which shows good internal reliability.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Statistical analysis related to the reliability of the Self Knowledge Sources scale reveals a favorable psychometric criteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Infant Sleep Practices and Knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome among Mothers of Infants Attending the Paediatric Clinics of a Tertiary Hospital in Sokoto, Nigeria

K. O. Isezuo , A. Adamu , F. B. Jiya , P. K. Ibitoye , M. O. Ugege , U. M. Sani , E. U. Yunusa , M. A. Sanni , M. A. Jangebe

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36614

Background: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a sudden unexpected death of an infant, the cause of which remains unexplained after a thorough investigation. Supine sleep positioning recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics since 1992 has significantly reduced the incidence of the problem in developed countries. In developing countries like Nigeria, poor practice of recommended sleeping position has been documented.

Objective: To assess the knowledge of SIDS and infant sleep practices amongst mothers seen in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto.

Methods: This was a 4-month cross-sectional study from November 2015 to February 2016. Mother infant pairs seen in the paediatric follow up clinic and immunization clinic of the hospital were consecutively selected and the mothers were interviewed after giving informed consent. Demographic data and responses were entered into a questionnaire. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 20.

Results: Of the 396 mothers interviewed, 360 (91%) had antenatal care. Eighty-one percent of infants shared a bed with parents or siblings. Only 34 mothers (8.6%) were aware of the recommended position. Infant sleep position was lying on side in 198 (50%), no particular position in 92 (23.2%), supine in 80 (20.2%) and prone in 26 (6.6%) Only 132 mothers (33.2%) had heard of SIDS and 30 (7.6%) thought it was caused by suffocation while another 30 (7.6%) thought it was caused by aspiration.

Conclusion: There is paucity of knowledge of SIDS and recommended infant sleep practices amongst mothers in the study area. Focused health education on SIDS prevention is necessary.