Open Access Minireview Article

The Problems and Prospects of Experimentation

K. O. Omokhafe , F. A. Akpobome , E. A. Imoren

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36429

There are two issues surrounding design and establishment of experiments. Among these is even when resources are available, it may be difficult to conduct purpose driven research. On the other hand, in the midst of scarce resources, there are often unrecognized opportunities. These challenges may be due to ignorance of the components of experiments which should not be ignored or taken for granted. These two limitations of researchers retard the progress and contribution of research to knowledge and development. The objective of this paper therefore was to provide a guide that will stimulate and sustain research interest through experiments that can impact positively on the scientist, work place and the society. In this regard, attention should be paid to the four cardinal aspects of an experiment, which are planning, conduct, data collection, collation and storage, data analysis and writing or documentation of report.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Effects of Climate Variability on Food Crop Agriculture in Uhunmwode Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

M. O. Nwagbara , F. Ozabor , A. Obisesan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/35946

This study examined the perceived effects of climate variability on food crop agriculture in Uhunmwode Local Government Area of Edo State. It adopted the survey research design. The local government area was first stratified into nine (9) based on existing towns in the area; after which four (4) villages were randomly selected from each town using the geographic cardinal points. On the basis of this stratification, 180 copies of a questionnaire were administered in the area. The simple percentage analysis was adopted for data analysis. Results showed that 78% of the respondents observed that there are changes in patterns of weather/climate variables such as rainfall and temperature: While rainfall is decreasing, the temperature is increasing. Also, the majority of farmers (83%) said that planting periods have changed due to shifting in the onset of rain. This climate variability is adversely affecting yield of food crops, and has been attributed to man’s activities by 45% of the farmers interviewed; 23% believed that the god’s are angry. To improve crop yields, 38% of respondents said that they have increased their farm sizes; 12% are using fertilizers; and 25% are appeasing the gods etc. This implies that many farmers are yet to understand what is happening to weather/climate. Therefore, the study recommends that the farmers should be made to be aware of the changing patterns of weather/climate. Seeds and seedlings that suit the changes should be introduced and the farmers re-orientated to adapt to the situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Noise Pollution from Power Generating Sets: A Case Study of Nnewi-North L.G.A, Nigeria

S. U. Onwuka , C. M. Ezigbo , P. S. U. Eneche

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36092

The assessment of noise pollution caused by emissions from power generating sets in Nnewi, a fast-growing town in Anambra State of Nigeria is presented in this paper. Some areas were randomly selected from the four quarters (i.e. Otolo, Umudim, Nnewichi and Uruagu) of Nnewi North Local Government Area.  Noise level readings were collected for three (3) days, i.e. Monday, Friday and Saturday, during noon (11 am – 1 pm) and evening periods (7 pm – 8 pm) over a space of three months. BAFX Digital Sound Level Meter was used to collect the noise data, whereas the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-22) was used to analyze the data obtained, using One-Sample T-Test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. Results obtained showed that there existed no significant difference between the mean noise levels of the study area and the NESREA standard. However, the mean of noise level readings for noon time (i.e. 53.31 ± 4.68 dBA) were found to be significantly different and less than the mean of noise level readings obtained during the evening period (i.e. 73.82 ± 5.83dBA). The study revealed that evening hours in the study area are generally noisier than the standard limit for noise. In view of the rapidity of urbanization and increasing population in the area, it therefore calls for urgent steps by the government and also environmental managers, to enact policies to enlighten the populace on the need for the adoption of noise-proof (power) generating sets, retrofitted and energy-efficient building strategies such as the use of solar energy and other more environmentally friendly options that will enhance urban liveability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving Modelling Accuracy of Aerodynamic Curve of a Wind Turbine Using Neural Networks

Danyal Bustan , Hoda Moodi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports,
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/37083

This paper addresses improved modelling of one of important aerodynamic curves of a wind turbine by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs). Aerodynamic curves play an important role in designing controller in wind turbines. Inherent nonlinearity of these curves and dependence of their current values to the operating conditions, make the wind turbine controller design a challenging problem. Currently, there are two major approaches for modelling these curves: 1- lookup tables and 2-polynomial approximation. Lookup tables are discrete and hence not suitable for continuous controller design and polynomial approximations are not accurate enough. These drawbacks impose inaccuracy to the controller design. To overcome this weakness, ANN is utilized to identify the aerodynamic curves. Specially, rotor power coefficient (Cp) is the focus of this paper as this curve has a direct effect on the controller’s parameters both in below and above rated wind speed. As ANNs are universal approximators, they can model this curve with required accuracy. Using this approach in addition to identification of Cp and obtaining a high accuracy model for this curve, optimum critical parameters of this curve can be estimated. By employing these estimated values, a new controller gain is computed. This controller is used when the wind speed is below rated speed and the rotor speed should track a reference trajectory (named variable speed or region II). Simulation shows that with this new controller the overall power capture is improved at no cost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Naturl Radioactivity Levels in Some Food Spices Commonly Used in Nigeria and Its Radiological Risks

C. P. Ononugbo , G. O. Avwiri , S. O. Ikhuiwu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36833

A spice is a vegetable substance of indigenous or exotic origin, which has a hot pigment taste that could be used to enhance taste of food or add to food some necessary stimulant ingredients. Knowledge of radioactivity levels in human diet is of particular concern for the estimation of possible radiological hazards to human health. In this study, the radioactivity concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th in some selected natural food spices commonly used in Nigeria were determined using gamma spectrometry and the ingested doses via food consumption were also assessed. The average activity concentration of 40K, 238U and 232Th in the samples are 729.85±1.44 Bqkg-1, 2.19±1.38 Bqkg-1 and 46.73±0.27 BqKg-1 respectively. The highest activity concentration of 40K, 238U and 232Th was recorded in Tatashey (2097.17±183) for 40K, Tomatoes (21.90±4.8) for 238U and Red onions (176.38±19) for 232Th. The estimated total annual effective dose received from 40K, 238U and 232Th due to consumption of natural (fresh) spices by the inhabitants of Port Harcourt  ranges from 0.85 to  46.76 µSvy-1and this is far below the average radiation dose of 290 µSvy-1 received per caput worldwide due to ingestion of natural radionuclides in food spices. The results indicate insignificant radiological health hazard to the public due to the consumption of spices via foods. The excess lifetime cancer risk due to ingestion of radionuclide in fresh food spices were evaluated and the values obtained were compared with standards. Based on these results it can be concluded that the foods spices analyzed in this study do not present any significant radiological concerns.