Open Access Commentary

Chikungunya Fever: An Emerging Public Health Problem in Bangladesh

Russell Kabir , Sayeeda Rahman , Tamanna Kalim , S. M. Yasir Arafat , Dioneia Motta Monte-Serrat

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36680

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging epidemic-prone and mosquito-transmitted causative agent of chikungunya fever accompanied by severe joint and muscle pain, headache, fatigue and rashes. In recent years, some diseases are emerging such as dengue fever due to climate change and global warming in Bangladesh. [12] it has been observed that during the period of monsoon and post-monsoon there is an increase activity of the vectors with rainfall and their life span is influenced by temperature and humidity. Post monsoon period increases virus transmission due to high vector density and Aedes aegypti is the main the vector responsible for CHIV in Bangladesh. Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, recently swayed with a severe outbreak of chikungunya and there are so far 3,000 cases have been reported in different hospitals and clinics of Dhaka from May to July 2017. It is normally advised that patients with chikungunya should be managed as dengue until dengue fever has been ruled out [13]. Chikungunya infections are confirmed by the detection of the virus, viral RNA or CHIKV specific antibodies in patient sample using serological process but viral RNA can easily be detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There is no vaccine for this infection as well as no specific antiviral treatment for Chikungunya fever as it is poorly responsive to analgesia in its acute and chronic phase of the disease. To control the spread of the infection government, non-government officials should come forward and take necessary steps to aware and educate people about the infection so that people can avoid contact with mosquitoes. National surveillance can be run along with active community participation is required to eradicate the mosquitoes the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity and Hypertension among Two Tribal Communities of Manipur

H. Sorojini Devi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/37130

The present cross sectional study was carried out among 368 adults in which 168 and 200 are from Chothe and Vaiphei respectively, aged 18-80 years. Subjects were randomly chosen from four (4) Chothe and Vaiphei inhabited villages of Chandel and Kangpokpi districts, Manipur. Anthropometric measurements that is, body height, weight, hip and waist girths were measured from the subjects. Body mass index (BMI) and Waist hip ratio (WHR) of each subject were computed. Blood pressure (BP) was measured and classified as per WHO (1999). Mean values of  anthropometric parameters and blood pressure indicate that the highest in waist girth, systolic and diastolic pressure and the second highest in height, weight and hip girth are represented by the Chothe men, while the Vaiphei men have the highest in body height and weight. Chothe and Vaiphei women have almost the same mean value of hip girth. It is also observed that more men are in the overweight than women except for Vaiphei women, while more women are in the obese criteria as compared with men, Less than 50% men and women are for overweight and obese criteria as per BMI, but higher among the Chothe and Vaiphei women (49.5% and 37.89%) as compared with men (45.5% and 36.19%). While using WHR cut off, the percentages increase among the Chothes, than using BMI levels with higher number of women (87.91%) than males (51.95%), however, among the Vaipheis, percentages decrease in using WHR cut off values. The prevalence of various grades of hypertension among the Chothes is found to be 62.34% for men and 34.16% for women. As for the Vaipheis, total of 42.86% and 11.58% are for men and women respectively who have suffered from different forms of systolic and diastolic pressures. Hence, higher percentage of Chothe adults are prone to hypertension than the Vaipheis, moreover, more men have hypertension problem as compared with women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychological Aspects of Obese Primary School Children Pre- and Post-MyBFF@school Intervention Programme: A Pilot Study

Zahari Ishak , Low Suet Fin , Liaw Sze Ying , Muhammmad Yazid Jalaludin , Fuziah Md Zain , Abdul Halim Mohktar , Rusidah Selamat , Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36285

Childhood obesity has been seen as a public health challenge in most of the developed and developing countries including Malaysia. This is due to the fact that childhood obesity can result in long term negative effect during adulthood. Thus, early intervention at the primary school stage is essential to prevent obese children from growing up into obese adults. The objective of this study was to analyse the psychological aspects of the obese students during pre- and post-intervention of the MyBFF@school, a school-based intervention program to combat obesity among children. The respondents comprised of 67 apparently healthy overweight and obese students aged 9-11 years old with BMI above the 85th percentile according to the WHO BMI chart. Stirling Children’s Wellbeing Scale was used to measure the constructs of positive outlook, positive emotional state and social desirability. Correlation between positive outlook, positive emotional state and social desirability was significantly higher during post-intervention compared to pre-intervention. This finding is crucial as strengthening the wellbeing of the respondents can sustain their involvement in the program. The findings further strengthened the evidence of positive impact of a school-based intervention program which incorporated physical, nutrition and psychological components.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Chemical Properties of Raw, Cooked and Dried Seeds of Buchholzia coriacea

R. O. Malomo , O. E. Bankole , A. O. Sorinola

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36098

The qualitative phytochemical analysis of water and methanolic extracts of dried seed of Buchholzia coriacea, proximate composition and mineral contents of raw, cooked and dried seed samples were determined using standard methods. The phytochemicals obtained from both water and methanolic extracts of dried seed were alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, glycosides, reducing sugars, steroids, saponin glycosides, phenolics and terpeniods. The proximate contents of the raw, cooked and dried seed samples showed that the concentrations of the nutrients followed the order dried > raw > cooked. It was also observed that the carbohydrate content recorded the highest values in the three samples: raw (50.03 ± 0.035%), cooked (28.07 ± 0.007%) and dried (69.04 ± 0.007%). The mineral contents of the seed followed the order K>Na>Mg>P>Ca>Zn>Mn. It was also revealed that potassium content recorded the highest value in raw (6400.50 ± 0.70 mg/kg), cooked (8100.25 ± 0.35 mg/kg) and dried (28400.50 ± 0.70 mg/kg). Therefore, seed of Buchholzia coriacea is a good source of energy and can also be used as functional food.

Open Access Review Article

Blending Formal Rules with Value Based Approaches toward Building Ethical Culture in Tanzania

Wilfred Uronu Lameck

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34649

Over the years, Tanzania government has strived towards establishing ethical culture in the public service. One of the methods used by the government since the attainment of its independence is the establishment of proper ethics infrastructure such as formal rules, policies, regulations and structures to guide the behavior of leaders and officials involved in service delivery. These rules guide the officials to refrain from unethical behavior through instruction and specification of what is allowed or not allowed to be done. Nevertheless, the endorsement of formal rules and policies has not adequately changed the behavior of public leaders and public servants. Unethical behavior and corruption is still widespread in the public service particularly in the local government authorities. Overall, the civil servants consider service delivery as a favor and not a duty and that they should get something in return. Building on insights from conventional literature on ethics management, this article argues that the use of formal rules alone can not be a panacea to unethical behavior of civil servants. Instead, the formal rules must be complemented with value based techniques such as ethical training through behavioral modeling on ethical attitudes and behavior.