Open Access Short Research Article

Measurement of Ambient Neutrons in Correlation with Weather during July-August, 2017, in São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil

Inácio M. Martin , Franklin A. Silva , Marcelo P. Gomes

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/37639

This work shows near-ground measurements of neutrons in the energy range of (0,03 eV to 10.0 MeV) performed at 1-minute intervals from July to August 2017. This monitoring was done in this period where there was dry weather in July and half of August. Between August 15th and the beginning of September, there were rains totaling 27 mm of intensity in the measurement region.  Environmental neutrons measured at this energy range show a reasonable increase in their intensity in the rainy period. This observation is in agreement with the international project "COSMOS" whose objective is to show the increase of the intensity of neutron near the surface of the Earth with wet soil. With the use of a simple portable detector system for monitoring measurements, it was also possible to see the (day/night) variation in the region, formed by the presence of Rn-222 radon gas. The local presence of this gas emits particles α and β that hit the soil and air producing neutrons.

Open Access Original Research Article

COD and Nutrient Removal Kinetics of Piggery Wastewater in Nigeria

B. U. Okoro , N. E. Nwaiwu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/24287

Waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) have been employed in treatment of diverse kinds of wastewater over the years. This system’s dynamics have been poorly understood and this has led to diverse problems over time such as reduced efficiency of reactors. This study employed the use of four models in the study of biological reaction in removal of organic matter from the waste stabilisation ponds. Prediction of removal rates of piggery wastewater in the ponds and at different retention times were studied using first order model, Monod, Grau and the Stover Kincannon model by fitting model to experimental data. Adaptability of the Monod model was poor in the anaerobic and part of the facultative pond. Monod model showed extent of substrate utilization by the cell yield coefficient ‘Y’ while the Stover Kincannon model’s maximum utilization rate constant (μmax) increased with increase in retention time. Stover Kincannon model showed a better adaptability (R2) than first and Monod models. Although the adaptability of first order was very poor, incremental biodegradation with time was noted which agrees with other models. Grau model gives a better system adaptation and agrees with other model substrate degradation prediction and also it best predicts efficiency of removal of substrate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Status of Women of Reproductive Age (20-50 Years Old) in Wamakko Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria

S. G. Ibrahim , A. Dandare , R. A. Umar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/37485

Aims: This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of women of reproductive age in nine villages of Wamakko Local Government, Sokoto State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Community based cross sectional survey design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria, between November 2015 and July 2016.

Methodology: Four hundred women were selected for the study and a structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic, socio-economic, reproductive health, ante-natal care, delivery practices, exclusive breast feeding and educational status. Height and weight of mothers were measured by standard methods. Body mass index (BMI) was used to assess mothers’ nutritional status.

Results: Results from the nine villages revealed that predominant women had no formal education (55.0 to 100.0%). There was very low level of ante-natal care attendance (18.0%) and ingestion of micronutrient supplementation during pregnancies (12.0%). Most deliveries (86.0%) from Gunfar Dangara and (92.0%) from Sabon Garin Dole were performed at home and mainly assisted by untrained traditional birth attendants. The dietary habit of the women indicated that carbohydrates base diet is the major food consumed by the women (55.6 – 76%) except Bakassi with only 7.5% of women who consumed carbohydrate base diet and with 60% of women who consumed protein rich food. Most women from the study areas were under weight <18.5 kg/m2 and very few women were obesed >30 kg/m2.

Conclusion: Poor health status during child bearing period, high deliveries at home along with high prevalence of under nutrition of mothers, are mainly due to low socio-economic condition, high illiteracy and lack of awareness among the villages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrients Intake of Adults in Urban and Rural Households in Abia and Ebonyi States, Nigeria

G. I. Davidson , H. N. Ene-Obong

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36265

Aim: This study assessed the energy and nutrient intakes of adults in Nigerian urban and rural households.

Methods: The study was conducted in forty (40) households comprising of 41 adult males and 58 adult females selected from two states (Abia and Ebonyi States) out of the five States that make up the south-eastern Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in the selection of households. A three-day weighed food intake was conducted in all the selected households to estimate the quantity of foods consumed by the adult family members. Nutrient intakes of individual adult family member were calculated using food composition tables and compared with the recommended nutrient intake (RNI). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Student’s t-test was used to compare means across locations (urban/rural) and significance accepted at p  0.05.

Results: Energy intake was lower for Abia subjects (72.9-95.6% RNI) than for Ebonyi (96.3-104.7% of RNI). Protein intake ranged from 66.4-113.2% of RNI in Abia and 74.2-98.9% of RNI in Ebonyi. Irrespective of location, female subjects had very low intake of iron (37.8-49.8% of RNI) compared to their male (91.6-126% of RNI) counterparts. Zinc intake (92.1-123.3% of RNI) was much better than calcium intake (50.9-80.9% of RNI) in both states irrespective of gender. Vitamins A (190.0-698.8% of RNI) and C (262.4-463.3%) intakes were adequate for all subjects investigated. Thiamin, riboflavin and niacin intakes were generally low (46.6-88.2%) in Abia and (54.7-91.1%) in Ebonyi States. There were few exceptions: Adult males and females in urban Ebonyi met 117.7 and 91.3% of their RNI for thiamin respectively.

Conclusion: Rural and urban female subjects in both States did not meet their recommended iron requirement and the urban subjects had higher intake in most nutrients than their rural counterparts in Abia State while in Ebonyi State, the reverse was the case for calcium, vitamin A and vitamin C.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Online Examination Management System for Geographically Dispersed Test Centres to Prevent Question Leakage: A Case Study of Bangladesh

Mohammad Shah Alam , Mohammad Imam Hasan Bin Asad, M. Rubaiyat Hossain Mondal

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/37178

Aims: In some developing countries, an important challenge of the examination system is the question paper leakage. To address this problem, this research proposes a web-based secure model for examination management system that is robust to question paper leakage. The feasibility of the proposed model is then validated by a practical implementation in the context of Bangladesh, a developing country.

Study Design: The proposed examination management system is a web based solution developed for online question paper uploading and then downloading from different locations. In this system, question papers are made available online to different geographical zones consisting of several examination centres, where those papers can only be downloaded after the stipulated time.

Methodology: In the proposed system, user authentication is ensured by a Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) which is achieved by providing a digital certificate with cryptographic token, matching a traditional password and One-Time Password (OTP) sent to a specified cell phone. To enhance the security further, question papers are encrypted and can be made accessible only when the cryptographic token is plugged in.  With the use of digital certificates, question papers are also protected from any sort of tampering. The question papers are then printed in press before being sent to the examination centres.

Place and Duration of the Study: A number of day-long examinations using the proposed model took place in Bangladesh.

Results: The feasibility of the proposed model was validated by deploying the system in a real-life recruitment examination of one million test-takers sparsely distributed in different locations in Bangladesh. The relevant personnel involved in the examinations provided positive feedback indicating successful implementation of the system.

Conclusion: The deployment of such a digital examination system is the first instance in Bangladesh. The challenges faced and the countermeasures undertaken during this practical implementation are also reported in this paper.