Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Participatory Teaching and Learning Approach in Teacher Training Colleges in Tanzania

Abich D. Omollo , Bahati Nyakrura , Yazidu Saidi Mbalamula

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34417

In this study, the use of participatory approach in teaching and learning in teachers colleges was explored with an aim of finding out whether tutors apply participatory approach in the classroom in order to improve teaching and learning among teacher trainees. Two public teachers colleges that are Tarime and Bunda teachers colleges were studied. Qualitative approach supplemented with quantitative data was employed. Stratified sampling, simple random sampling and purposive sampling procedures were used to select 96 respondents for the study. Furthermore, the study used semi-structured interview, Focused Group Discussion, questionnaires, observation and document review to collect data. The quantitative data were manually analysed and presented in frequencies, percentages and tables while qualitative data were subjected to content analysis.  The study found that tutors use participatory approach in teaching and learning with the question and answers technique in the classroom. The study found that tutors had the positive attitude towards the use of participatory approach. The study recommends that the government should direct more resources to teacher colleges and schools to render the working environment conducive for effective teaching and learning. Planned in-service training programmes and workshops should be initiated and sustained at school, college, district and national level to update teachers and tutors content knowledge and pedagogical skills.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pressure Effect on Magnetic Properties of Isotropic Nd-Fe-B Resin Bonded Magnets for Automotive Sector Applications

S. Karamanou , M. Gjoka , M. Pissas , V. Psycharis , D. Niarchos

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/37800

Aims: The purpose of this work is to study the effect of compression pressure on isotropic epoxy resin bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets, with the goal of achieving high densities at room temperature.

Methodology: We present data on the effect of the applied pressure on the structure and magnetic properties of a series of polymer bonded magnets based on MQ-powders with a distribution of grain sizes and coated with various thickness of epoxy resins.

Results: Densities of the order 83% of the theoretical estimated density value were achieved with an energy product of 10.33 MGOe. By increasing the molding pressure the density and the energy product of the bonded magnets was increased.

Conclusion: The combination of high density with good energy product is desirable for numerous applications especially within the automotive sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Gender Accessibility to Productive Resources for Rice Production in Niger State, Nigeria

O. S. Adejoh , A. S. Onwuaroh , S. Abdulrahman , G. Binuyo , B. D. Magaji

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/25935

Aims: The aim was to analyze the factors influencing gender accessibility to productive resources for rice production in Niger State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Primary data were collected from 125 rice farmers with the aid of structured questionnaire.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Lavun, Katcha and Gbako Local Government Areas of Niger State during 2015 cropping season.

Methodology: A multistage comprising purposive and random sampling techniques were used for data collection in this study. Descriptive statistics and logit regression was used in analyzing the data.

Results: The factors influencing gender accessibility to land resources were age, household size and cooperative membership at P<0.01 and P<0.10 level. Seed resource were age, education and access to credit at P<0.05 and P<0.01 level while education, extension contact and household size were not statistically significant. The factors influencing gender accessibility to labour resource were age, household size, extension contact and access to credit at P<0.05 and P<0.01 level.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it suffice to note that gender accessibility to productive resources is important in attaining food security and realizing the poverty reduction strategies of African countries. Farmers in the study area have limited access to major productive resources, but the females were more constrained. Providing resources in an efficient and equitable manner appears to have potential for greatly improving the scope for future poverty reduction in Nigeria. Given the necessary resources and the same enabling environment as their male counterpart in farming activities, women farmers are equally efficient in the utilization of these resources to achieve higher productivity and also there is need for an aggressive approach to ensure that gender participation in agriculture is at an increasing rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Observation of Physio-Chemical Differences of Rice Husk Silica under Different Calcination Temperatures

Ryoko Sekifuji, Van Chieu Le, Bandunee Champika Liyanage, Masafumi Tateda

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/37621

Aims: Amorphous silica in rice husk ash is a reliable and sustainable resource, although rice husks are currently an issue for farmers. Amorphous silica is a resource in various industrial applications and can easily be obtained from rice husks if they are treated correctly. If the treatment is not conducted properly, amorphous silica becomes crystalline, which is carcinogenic. In this study, physio-chemical observations of the transformation of amorphous to crystalline silica were conducted under “no-fixed carbon” conditions. 

Study Design: Rice husks were burned at different temperatures in an electric furnace and their ash was analyzed for solubility, fixed carbon, volatile matters, ash, and moisture. XRD, WDX, and SEM were used for physical state analysis.

Location and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in a laboratory at Toyama Prefectural University from April 2015 to March 2017.

Methodology: Rice husks from Koshihikari (Oryza sative L.) were used in this study. Rice husks were calcinated in a laboratory-scale electric furnace (KBF794N1, Koyo for 500-1,100°C, Lindberg, Koyo for 1,500°C) for two hours at 500-1,500°C after being washed with acetic acid (5%). The physical state of rice husk silica was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD: MultiFlex 40 kV, 30 mA, CuKα, 2θ: 5-80°, Rigaku). The rice husks were ground into a powder and analyzed by XRD.

Results: It was found that amorphous silica in rice husks transformed into crystalline silica at burning temperatures of over 1,000°C. Total silica (T-silica) in the ash burned at 500°C—800°C, almost equal to the burning temperature of soluble silica (S-silica), and beyond 900°C, the non-S-silica portion of T-silica increased. From the morphological observations, at low temperatures the rice husk ash was fragile and did not hold its original shape; in contrast, the rice husk ash held its original shape at high temperatures. At extremely high temperatures, such as 1,000 and 1,500°C, the original shapes seemed to shrink by melting on the ash’s surface of the ash. 

Conclusions: Under no influence of fixed carbon, the amorphous silica in rice husks transformed to crystalline silica at temperatures over a 1,000°C burning temperature. The T-silica in the ash that burned at 500°C—800°C were almost entirely S-silica, and then over 900°C, the non-S-silica portion increased in T-silica.

Open Access Original Research Article

Workplace Health Promotion in Selected Banks of Mushin Local Government Area, Nigeria

Elizabeth R. Ogungbenle, Precious E. Omeonu, Posi E. Aduroja , Olasumbo B. Kukoyi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/37618

Aims: To assess banker’s knowledge, attitude and perception on sedentary lifestyle as a predisposing factor to hypertension together with availability of workplace health promotion towards combating hypertension susceptibly among bankers.

Study Design: Cross-sectional survey design.

Place and Duration of Study: Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State., between January 2017 and April 2017.

Methodology: Study was carried out among 131 staff of 10 different banks in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection, in which the knowledge, attitude, perception, practice of sedentary lifestyle and hypertension and also workplace health promotion was measured. Data collected were analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 21 with levels of significance set at 0.05.

Results: Most of the  respondents had  low level of knowledge (46%) on what constitute sedentary lifestyle and hypertension, where more than half of the respondent had good attitude towards sedentary lifestyle (56%), the respondents’ perceived seriousness of hypertension was good (56.83%),  where the perceived susceptibility to hypertension was found to be low (49.08%) and the study also revealed that the respondents perceived benefits was good with percentage above average (64%), the study revealed that respondents’ practice of physical activity was good (52.53%) but there is room for improvement. Analysis also showed that there was no stipulated workplace health promotion across the selected banks (37.2%). It was gathered that respondents knowledge of sedentary lifestyle was significantly related to their increased sedentary lifstyle (R2 = 0.121; F = 17.697; P < 0.05), Test result showed that there was a significant association between non availability of workplace health promotion and the increased practice of sedentary lifestyle among respondents (F = 6.542, R Square = 0.048; P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The study concluded that knowledge of bankers on sedentary lifestyle as a risk factor to hypertension was low indicating that bankers do not have enough knowledge linking sedentary lifestyle to hypertension and non-availability of workplace health promotion contributed to the sedentary lifestyle of bankers. This is indicating that a reduction in sedentary lifestyle among bankers calls for an establishment of workplace health promotion.