Open Access Original Research Article

Analyzing the Relationship between Climatic Variability and Vegetables Yield: A Study in Syangja District, Nepal

N. Regmi, B. Ghimire, S. Baral, S. Dhakal

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36270

Vegetable production is highly dependent on climatic variability. Several studies have concluded that Syangja district (latitude 28°4'60 North and longitude 83°52'0 East) of Nepal is more vulnerable to climate change; thus, a changing climate should have a significant impact on vegetable crop yields. In this paper, the relationship between climate variation and vegetable output in Syangja district for the period 2005 to 2014 was analyzed. This work aims to explore the impact of climate change on major vegetable crop yields and to determine their relationships based on a regression model between historical climatic data and yield data for vegetable crops. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was ranked as the most affected vegetable crop in the study area. An analytical analysis of the last 20 years of climatic data from meteorological stations of Syangja district was done. Microsoft excels and STATA12 have been used for the trend analysis and quantification of climatic data. Trend analysis of area under vegetable and productivity shows increasing trend over last 10 years in the study district. Both maximum and minimum temperature shows the increasing trends over the last 15years. The mean maximum temperature was increasing significantly (P<0.1) at the rate of 0.029°C per year, while the average minimum temperature was increasing significantly (P<0.01) at the rate of 0.044°C per year. Rainfall shows decreasing trend by 11 mm per year and relative humidity in the morning and evening shows increasing trend by 0.009 and 0.27% per year respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of climatic variables in productivity of Vegetable crops. The logit regression analysis of vegetable production with climatic variables revealed a coefficient of determination of 0.94 indicating 94% of vegetable production variance is explained by climatic variables. Results showed positive significant relationship with area under vegetable cultivation (P<0.1) and negative significant relationship with average minimum temperature (P<0.5).

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Meteorology for Seasonal Variation in Air Pollution Level in Eleme, Rivers State, Nigeria

B. Yorkor, T. G. Leton, J. N. Ugbebor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/36613

Meteorological variables play important roles in the dispersion and dilution of air pollutants in an area. This study investigates the influence of meteorological parameters on seasonal variations of air pollutants in a semi industrial area. A ten year set of air quality and meteorological data were collected and used in the study. Data analysis was done using MatLab and SPSS software. The study showed that the degree of air pollution in the area varies according to two prevailing wind directions that dominated the area. The study indicated that NO2 decreases with wind speed and relative humidity, and slightly increases with wind direction and temperature. CH4 increases with wind speed and temperature and decreases with wind direction and relative humidity. CO slightly increases with wind direction and relative humidity, and decreases with wind speed and temperature. While SO2 increases with wind speed and wind direction, and slightly decreases with temperature and relative humidity. Results indicated that the coefficient of determination (R2) for both dry and rainy seasons are very low, indicating that there is a weak linear relationship between pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters in both dry and rainy seasons. The study revealed that there is no significant relationship between pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters. The study showed that the relationships between pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters in the area are highly nonlinear. The yearly mean concentration of methane hydrocarbon was 146.2 μg/m3 in the dry season and 167.8 μg/m3 in the rainy season. The yearly mean concentration of carbon monoxide was 59.0 μg/m3 in the dry season and 60.4 μg/m3 in the rainy season. The yearly mean concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the dry season was 67.2 μg/m3 and 49.1 μg/m3 in the rainy season, while the yearly mean concentration of sulphur dioxide in the dry season was 47.7 μg/m3 and 48.8 μg/m3 in the rainy season. Seasonal variation showed no significant change in pollutant concentrations in both dry and rainy seasons (P>0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Optical Parameters Analysis of Photonic Crystal Fiber with Rectangular Lattice Geometry

Md. Bellal Hossain, Md. Aminul Kabir, Abdullah Al-Mamun Bulbul, Etu Podder, Md. Khalid Hossen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/38510

Aims: This paper investigates effective refractive index, confinement loss and waveguide dispersion for rectangular photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with five layers of air holes.

Methodology: The analysis of these properties is done by changing air hole diameter and lattice pitch. Three different materials namely borosilicate glass, fused quartz glass and sapphire glass are taken as fiber background material. The Finite domain Time-difference method is used for simulation and simulation work is carried on in Opti-FDTD software.

Results: This research work offers with low confinement loss and high negative dispersion for all the three materials for wavelength range from 1200 nm to 1600 nm. Low confinement loss is obtained for the largest air hole diameter from air hole diameter variation and for largest lattice pitch from lattice pitch variation. The lowest confinement loss is found around 0.7×10-8 dB/km for fused quartz glass at wavelength 1550 nm for largest pitch (2.3 μm) among all the three materials. Again, Large negative dispersion is found for the largest air hole diameter from diameter variation but for the lattice pitch variation, it is achieved from the smallest lattice pitch. Highest negative dispersion is found form sapphire glass when air hole diameter is 0.6 μm and lattice pitch is 1.71 μm. The highest negative dispersion is found approximately -1500 ps/(nm.km) at wavelength 1575 nm.

Conclusion: High negative dispersion is greatly desirable in telecommunication field which has been demonstrated at the simulation output.

Open Access Original Research Article

Habitat Selection of Invasive Sika Deer Cervus nippon Living in a UK Lowland Heathland-Woodland-Grassland Mosaic: Implications for Habitat Conservation Management

Anita Diaz, Sean Walls, Debbie Whitmarsh, Martin Smith, Iain Green

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/38579

Understanding the factors determining the choice and use of habitats by invasive species is key to the conservation management of habitats and may also enable species to be harnessed as conservation tools. Here we explore the habitat use of an invasive population of sika deer, Cervus nippon on internationally important heathland in a landscape of heathland, grassland and woodland in southern UK. We used radio telemetry to test two hypotheses 1) grasses form a major part of the diet of non-native UK sika deer throughout the year 2) deer select grassland habitats above other habitats available. Results showed that although grasses form a major part of their diet, the strongest habitat selection was for heathland, the habitat that offered the least nutrient reward but which offered a source of roughage in the diet and some harbourage from human disturbance.  This has implications for the conservation management of heathlands used by sika deer as it strongly indicates that heathland is a vulnerable habitat due to being favoured by sika deer but that its vulnerability can be reduced by coupling population control with targeted habitat management action such as increased disturbance or the removal of harbourage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Taste Evaluation of Rice Grown in Soil Treated with Commercial Silica and Recycled Rice Husk Silica

Ryoko Sekifuji, Masafumi Tateda

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/38828

Aim: To evaluate the taste of rice grown in soil treated with rice husk silica in order to elucidate the potential use of rice husk silica as a fertilizer in terms of taste of rice.

Study Design: Rice plants were grown in soil treated with rice husk silica and officially approved, commercial silica fertilizer. The taste of the rice plants was compared based on their quality evaluation value (QEV).

Location and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the city of Imizu where the Toyama Prefectural University is located. The period of study was from March 2015 to April 2016.

Methodology: Paddy fields were divided based on the type and amount of silica applied. The rice plants were grown under different conditions. The growth of rice plants and silica sorption by rice plants were analyzed to obtain data on the physical state of the rice plants. Taste of rice was evaluated by the QEV based on four parameters, contents of protein, water, amylose, and fatty acid.

Results: It was observed that the taste of rice grown in soil treated with rice husk silica was not different from that of the rice grown in soil treated with commercial silica fertilizer.

Conclusions: Rice husk silica can be used as a silica fertilizer in terms of taste of rice.