Open Access Short Research Article

The Influence of Instructional Method, Visual Spatial Intelligence, and School Readiness on Early Reading Abilities

Pupung Puspa Ardini, Myrnawati Crie Handini

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/38737

The objective of this research is to determine the effect of the instructional method of reading, visual spatial intelligence, and school readiness on early reading ability among the first grade of elementary students. This study adopted a treatment of 2 x 2 x 2 level design with the total sample of 80 students. There are two types of instructional method of reading; Multisensory and Phonics,these were used as  treatment. Analysis of Variance of Three Factors was used  analyse the  data collection. The study reveals that, there are significant differences in the average scores of early reading-Performance of Multisensory and Phonics tests;differences between the  highest and lowest visual spatial intelligences scores;the  highest and lowest school readiness average scores as well as the  significant interaction between instructional method of reading and visual spatial intelligences; instructional method of reading and school readiness; visual spatial intelligences and school readiness;the  instructional method of reading, visual spatial intelligences, and school readiness on early reading. Based on these findings, it is, therefore, recommended to conduct technical guiandce activities for teachers in primary school,and conduct a workshop on writting the guidebook for the activity of multisensory methods in the classroom. In addition, designing early reading program as the foundation at the beginning of the school years recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organic Metabolites, Alcohol Content, and Microbial Contaminants in Sorghum-based Native Beers Consumed in Barkin Ladi Local Government Area, Nigeria

Samuel Y. Gazuwa, Yohanna Denkok

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/38124

Aim: To determine the alcohol content, organic metabolites generated as well as microorganisms present in native beers.

Study Design: The work is descriptive.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Jos: May 2017- June 2017.

Methodology: Alcohol content, metabolites produced and microbes present in samples by applying gravity, mass spectrometric and microbial methods respectively.

Results: Results obtained indicated the presence of hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, sulfurous acid, ethyl docosanoate, and 9 – octadecanone in both Burukutu and Pito samples. However they differed in some metabolites thus: in Burukutu, trifluoroacetic acid, 2-methyl nonadecane, 2-tetradecen-1-ol, pentanoic acid, 1-heptacosanol, cyclotetradecene, docosanoic acid and chloroformate. In Pito, dichloroacetic, pentadecanoic acid,1-hexadecanol,1-tetracosanol, methyl tetradecanoate, cyclobutan carboxylic acid, 3-heptanoic acid, cyclobutane, butyl ester, 2-decen-1-ol. Results also showed the mean alcohol content of Burukutu and Pito at 4.88% (v/v) and 3.35% (v/v) respectively. Microbial analysis of the samples indicated the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeStaphylococcus aureusStreptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli.

Conclusion: Native beers contain ethyl alcohol, undesirable metabolites which might contribute to alcohol toxicity and also presence of pathogenic microbes which predisposedrinkers to their infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Nutrient, Antinutrient Compositions and Median Lethal Dose of Leaves of Microdesmis puberula Grown in Nigeria

Uwemedimo E. Udo, Akaninyene U. Udo, Emmanuel U. Dan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/38683

Aims: To evaluate the nutrient, antinutrient, mineral element and phytochemical compositions as well as acute toxicity profile of leaf extract of Microdesmis puberula.

Study Design: Quantitative nutrient, antinutrient and mineral elements assessment assays, quantitative phytochemical assays as well as acute toxicity test of leaf extract of Microdesmis puberula.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Nigeria, July 2016 - September 2017.

Methodology: Standard methods were used to evaluate the concentration of ash, moisture, crude protein, crude fibre, crude lipids, carbohydrate, phytic acid and hydrocyanide in the leaf extract of Microdesmis puberula. Levels of calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc were also evaluated in addition to the quantitative determination of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides.

Results: Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and terpenes, while anthraquinones, phlobatannins and tannins were absent. Quantitative phytochemical determination (mg/100 g) gave the following: 12.80 ± 0.02, 5.85 ± 0.01, 2.48 ± 0.01 and 1.25 ± 0.01 for alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides respectively. Proximate analysis indicated moisture content (48.17 ± 0.07 %) with crude protein, crude fibre and lipid were also present in appreciable quantities. Mineral elements determination (mg/100 g dry weight) showed calcium (163.50 ± 2.01), iron (188.70 ± 2.50), magnesium (168.40 ± 1.50), potassium (42.55 ± 0.55) and zinc (40.80 ± 1.01). Antinutrient analysis indicated low levels of phytic acid (18.220 ±0.030), hydrocyanide (0.002 ± 0.000) and oxalate (1.861 ± 0.002). The LD50 (i. p. mice) of M. puberula was 2872.28 mg/kg.

Conclusion: The leaf extract of Microdesmis puberula is rich in nutrients and mineral elements which are required for human nutritional wellbeing and development. The presence of phytochemicals in the leaves of M. puberula which have much pharmacological importance lends credence to the many ethnomedicinal uses of this plant. The low levels of antinutrients which are far below the lethal doses as well as the acute toxicity test value of 2872.28 mg/kg indicate low toxicity and suggest that the consumption of the leaves of as food is not harmful.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Personnel Radiation Monitoring in Selected Hospitals in South – South and South – East Region of Nigeria

I. E. Nwokeoji, G. O. Avwiri

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/38837

Background: The use of radiation in hospitals is of great benefit to patients. However scattered radiation that is associated with its use is of great risk to staff and the general public that come in contact with it. The need, therefore, arises that staff be monitored to ensure that they are not exposed to radiation levels higher than the allowed safety limits.

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate personnel radiation monitoring and availability of personal protective equipment in some tertiary hospitals in South-South and South – East of Nigeria to ensure that they comply with international regulations.

Methods: A survey that targeted the staff of the radiology department of five selected hospitals in South-South and South – East Region of Nigeria was conducted. The data collection instrument was a twenty – two item semi-structured self – completion questionnaire. Convenience sampling was used to select the hospitals and a total of 79 staff were sampled. The data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010.

Results: The percentage of personnel monitored ranged between 45% and 89%. Availability of five personal protective equipment (PPEs) was considered: lead apron, gonad shield, thyroid shield, gloves and glasses. The lead apron was readily available in all the hospitals, 90% and above in all the hospitals, while the gonad shield was almost nonexistent, 11% and below. The knowledge of basic definitions and principles of radiation safety was a little above average. Dosimetric records were not considered important during staff recruitment.

Conclusion: Radiation monitoring of staff of the five selected hospitals was below the expected 100% required by international standards. Personal protective equipment required were not sufficiently available. Therefore the management of the hospitals should ensure that all necessary equipment is available to achieve occupational radiation safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diffusion of Innovations: The Status of Building Information Modelling Uptake in Nigeria

Mansur Hamma-adama, Huda Salman, Tahar Kouider

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/38711

Aim: This study evaluated Building Information Modelling (BIM) awareness and adoption in Nigeria through the line of enquiry known as the ‘diffusion of innovations’ and its possible uptake.  

Study Design: The study is quantitative in nature and the primary data fetched through questionnaire survey within Nigerian construction industry.

Place and Duration of the Study: Conducted within North-west, North-central and Lagos, Nigeria for a period of 4 months.

Methodology: A quantitative approach was adopted to x-ray the Nigerian construction industry; a structured questionnaire was used across the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC). The generated data were analysed through descriptive statistics (in percentages) and presented in charts and graphs.

Results: The result revealed that 59.5% are aware of BIM technology; 22.8% are aware and currently using BIM and the remaining 17.7% neither aware nor using BIM; consequently, the industry was evaluated just within the Late Majority in terms of awareness and just entered the Early Majority in terms of BIM technology adoption.

Conclusion: Nigeria is at least five years behind US, UK and South Africa. In addition to lagging behind by at least five years, it is also behind by about 10% and 50% for UK and US respectively. The study also discovers the most significant barriers to BIM adoption as lack of BIM experts and lack of collaboration by its team stakeholders. The industry is likely to take the UK pattern in adopting the BIM and Recommendations are made based on the findings of the research.