Open Access Minireview Article

Greenhouse Effect: Greenhouse Gases and Their Impact on Global Warming

Darkwah Williams Kweku, Odum Bismark, Addae Maxwell, Koomson Ato Desmond, Kwakye Benjamin Danso, Ewurabena Asante Oti-Mensah, Asenso Theophilus Quachie, Buanya Beryl Adormaa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/39630

The Greenhouse effect is a leading factor in keeping the Earth warm because it keeps some of the planet's heat that would otherwise escape from the atmosphere out to space. The study report on the Greenhouse gases and their impact on Global warming. Without the greenhouse effect the Earth's average global temperature would be much colder and life on Earth as we know it would be impossible.

Greenhouse gases include water vapor, CO2, methane, nitrous oxide (N2O) and other gases. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases turn like a blanket, gripping Infra-Red radiation and preventing it from escaping into outer space. The clear effect of the greenhouse gases is the stable heating of Earth's atmosphere and surface, thus, global warming. 

The ability of certain gases, greenhouse gases, to be transparent to inbound visible light from the sun, yet opaque to the energy radiated from the earth is one of the best still events in the atmospheric sciences. The existence of greenhouse effect is what makes the earth a comfortable place for life.

The study also reveals the importance of greenhouse gases to the warming of the planet earth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Implications of Geographical Factors and Trends of Climatic Factors on Aridity/Humidity Trends

Chang-Soo Rim

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/39201

The study aimed to find the implications of geographical factors and trends of climatic factors (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation) on aridity index trends at 56 sites in South Korea. Monthly, seasonal, and annual normal aridity index values for the 56 study stations in South Korea were estimated for a 30-year period (1974-2003). The aridity index was estimated as the ratio of precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET) (P/PET). Detailed geographical information and multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses were used to assess the implications. The trends of climatic factors had more close implications on aridity index trends than geographical factors. The aridity index changes were driven mainly by changes in precipitation; and the changes in other climatic factors (wind speed, relative humidity, and solar radiation) also showed significant correlations with the aridity index trend. When considering the relative importance of geographical factors (elevation, freshwater area, urbanization, and proximity to the coast) on aridity/humidity trends, the elevation were found to be the most important factor. The changes in precipitation as climatic factor and elevation as geographical factor are turned out to be the most important factors affecting on regional aridity/humidity trends in South Korea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Radiogenic Heat Production Due to Natural Radionuclides in the Sediments of Bonny River, Nigeria

A. Bubu, C. P. Ononugbo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/39159

In this study, the analysis of sediment samples was carried out to determine the concentrations, distribution and the pattern of Radiogenic Heat Production of radioactive elements in sediment samples from Bonny River, Rivers State, Nigeria. Twenty sediment samples were collected at various sites of the River and the analysis of the sediment samples using a cylindrical NaI(Tl) detector reveals that the contents of the radioactive elements (238U, 232Th and 40K ) in the sediments fall below the WHO’s critical values of contaminated sediment/soil. Field observations and sediment properties show that the sediments were derived from weathering of preexisting sedimentary bedrocks which constitute the geology of the area. The results also show that the contribution and rate of heat production of 40K, 238U and 232Th in the samples vary significantly with geological locations, which ranged 0.0286 µW/m3 to 2.5094 µW/m3 with an average value of 0.6002±0.64 µW/m3, with 232Th as the major element which predominates in heat production for the Bonny River sediment of the study area, while 238U and 40K are trace elements. The radiogenic heat production elements (RHPE) contribution shows that all the points on the sites have the same pattern of radiogenic heat production contribution of the elements to the radiogenic heat production (RHP).

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Processes for Producing Better Rice Husk Silica Produced from a Field-scale Incinerator

Ryoko Sekifuji, Masafumi Tateda

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/39409

Aim: The “amorphous” state of silica is the critical characteristic necessary for its use in various applications.  Extensive experimentation has determined that the highest quality rice husk ash is obtained after treating the ash in two steps: a burning step followed by a curing step.  The purpose of this study was to determine how to conduct these two steps such that the highest quality silica possible could be obtained from the ash.

Study Design: Using the solubility of silica as an indicator of the amorphous state, the quality of silica in rice husk ash produced by three treatment processes was evaluated; after all, rice husks were incinerated as a basic treatment.

Location and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted from 2013 to 2016 at Toyama Prefectural University.

Methodology: Three treatment methods for the curing step were evaluated: a heating drum, insulating drums, and a sink within the incinerator system.

Results: As a result, the highest solubility silica was obtained from the sink, which produced silica with more than 70% solubility, compared to about 40% in other treatments.

Conclusions: It can be concluded that the ash should be treated within the incinerator system without being exposed to cold temperatures outside.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity and Economic Benefits of Using Different Rates of Lumax 537.5 SE for Weed Control in Maize in a Transition Agro-ecological Zone of Ghana

V. Y. Anorvey, H. K. Dapaah, E. K. Asiedu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/37320

A study on the productivity and economic benefits of various rates of Lumax 537.5 SE for weed control in maize were conducted during the 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons at the Multipurpose Research Centre of the University of Education, Winneba, Mampong-Ashanti from September-December, 2009 and April-July, 2010. The treatments were Lumax 537.5 SE at rates of 2, 4, 6, and 8l/ha and Hoe-weeded with Unweeded treatment added as a control. Lumax at all rates and the Hoe-weeded treatments had more than 22% higher maize grain yield than the Unweeded control in both years. The 4l Lumax/ha gave the highest net benefit of USD1432.9/ha and USD1931.02/ha in 2009 and 2010, respectively compared to all the other treatments. The Hoe-weeded and Lumax rates at 6 l/ha and 8 l/ha had lower net benefits of USD1356.25/ha, USD1407.88/ha and USD1366.23/ha respectively in 2009, USD1830.91/ha, USD1866.41/ha, USD1834.29/ha respectively in 2010, but higher total variable costs of USD218.75/ha, USD198.63/ha and USD233.28/ha, respectively in 2009 and USD245.84/ha, USD224.54/ha and USD260.22/ha respectively in 2010 compared to the 4l Lumax/ha; and therefore were dominated by the latter. The 4l Lumax/ha gave marginal rates of returns of 544% and 714% over the 2l Lumax/ha in 2009 and 2010, respectively. It was concluded that Lumax 537.5 SE at 4l/ha was the optimum rate for better weed control and profitability for maize production in the transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana.