Open Access Original Research Article

Social Work Perspective on Disaster Vulnerability and Resilience in Botswana

Kgosietsile Maripe

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/38847

Social work is committed to develop communities adhering to social justice, human rights, and respect for cultural diversity amongst people. It advocates for community sustainable development and protection from hazards/risks within the locality. While serving the person in the social environment, it is dedicated to the identification of hazards, risks, and vulnerabilities that could jeopardize livelihood sustainability and recovery from disasters. It takes cognizance of the burden climate Change places on the global social and physical environment and complicating other social pollutants with grave consequences on communities. Climate change with its damaging weather patterns has complicated the flooding, rains, drought episodes, and new health hazards that communities must prepare against. Botswana national disaster management policy and response plan promote community participation in disaster risk management. Despite, communities are vulnerable to diverse disasters (floods, windstorms, drought, torrential rains, and pollution) with a negative impact on their livelihoods and sustenance. Community vulnerability is increasingly complicated by climate change. The literature reveals that vulnerability resonates with the lack of hazards and risk knowledge, lack of preparedness and response systems, inadequate information on hazards and risks patterns in the community, and weak assessment of new threats and risks, and inadequate community disaster interventions. The paper proposes a community-based vulnerability and risk assessment management measures to build resilience.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pursuing Simple and Low-cost Operation for Sludge Reduction via a Self-Oxidized Reduction Process in a Field-Scale Sewage Treatment Plant

Ryoko Sekifuji, Satoru Takinami, Yukinori Harada, Masashi Watanabe, Masafumi Tateda

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/40146

Aims: A self-oxidized sludge reduction process was installed in a municipal sewage treatment plant at full scale in order to verify the efficiency of the process.

Study Design: A full-scale (100 m3) self-oxidized sludge reduction tank was constructed in a municipal sewage treatment plant and was operated for collecting data.

Place and Duration of Study: The sewage treatment plant was located in a city of Toyama Prefecture, Japan.  The field test was conducted from FY 2011 to 2015. 

Methodology: By observing BOD, SS, and CODMN and controlling them to conform to industrial wastewater discharge standards, the cost reduction of waste sludge disposal resulting from sludge mass reduction via the self-oxidized process was evaluated. 

Results: In this study, the operation cost for a local small government in charge of the plant was reduced by more than 50,000 USD per year.

Conclusions: The self-oxidized method can be an alternative sludge reduction method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carbon Stock Assessment in Majiya Fuelwood Reserve, Sokoto State- Nigeria

M. Ibrahim, A. D. Isah, S. B. Shamaki, M. Audu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/39457

This research was conducted with a view to assess the carbon stock in Majiya Fuel Reserve in Dange Shuni Local Government Area of Sokoto State. A 150 m line transect was laid at both sides of the reserve and the area was divided into 30 x 30 m plots, of which simple random sampling was used to select 15 plots from each side. A total of 474 trees from 30 randomly selected plots using 5 line transects were used for this study. Detailed measurement of the trees were carried out in terms of  merchantable height, diameter at base, diameter at breast height (Dbh), diameter at middle and top in all the selected plots. Stem cores were also taken from 5 randomly selected trees in each selected plot for density estimation. Near the center of each plot, soil samples were collected at three different depths (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) for soil organic carbon (SOC) estimation. The data collected were used to compute volume and density for aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation and 20% of the AGB was adopted for belowground biomass (BGB) estimation. The AGB was estimated to be 44.58t ha-1, BGB of 8.92t ha-1 and SOC of 252.04t ha-1 which amounts to a total carbon stock of 305.54t ha-1 and the atmospheric CO2 capture of the reserve was 1121.33t CO2e ha-1. The result of this study revealed that Majiya Fuel Reserve has a great potential for sequestering atmospheric CO2 if managed sustainably.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heart Size Measurement in the New Zealand White Rabbit by Cardiothoracic Ratio

Rock O. Ukaha, Jessica I. Iloh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/35181

Aim: Assessing the heart and other thoracic structures radiographically is very important, in small animal practice, when decisions must be made regarding staging a patient with the suspected cardiac anomaly, deciding about therapy protocols, and monitoring disease progression or response to treatment. The present work was carried out to generate a value for radiographic measurement of heart size in the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit by the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR).

Materials and Methods: Ten healthy NZW rabbits were used for the study. A dorsoventral (DV) thoracic radiograph was obtained in each of the animals. Cardiac and thoracic diameters of the ten rabbits were evaluated to determine a reference value of CTR in normal NZW rabbits.

Results: Mean plus or minus standard error of mean (M±SEM) CTR were 0.54 ± 0.01. There was not a significant difference between male (0.54 ± 0.01) and female (0.54 ± 0.01) CTR values. There was no correlation between sex and CTR.

Conclusion: In clinical practice, the application of CTR in radiographic assessment of the heart is objective and very easy.

Open Access Review Article

Agriculture System and Climate Change: A Systematic Literature Review

Rita Indrasti, Julian Witjaksono

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/39661

Agriculture system is still taking the high risk in order to feed the people around the world. Climate is changing now and will have the big problem of agriculture productivity. Feeding people in the future is not easy. We need to take some actions regarding climate change. Objectives of this paper were addressed by performing a systematic review of both academic, scientific and grey literature elaborating on food security and climate change. This paper discussed that it is necessary to generate evidence that can show how and why climate vulnerability is a problem requiring integration into development decisions. In addition, global climate impact analysis should "come down to earth" and be validated at the local level, accounting for spatial variability, possible adaptation responses, local resource availabilities and constraints, and socio-economic determinants. We conclude with a recommendation for a specific action to enable farmers in the tropics and subtropics to address climate variability and extreme events.