Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Heart Size in the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) by Vertebral Scale System

Rock O. Ukaha, Jessica I. Iloh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/35182

Aim: Cardiac and pericardial diseases are frequently associated with a change in the size of the heart. Therefore, the radiographic evaluation of the heart size is invaluable in the determination of the extent and severity of the cardiac or pericardial disorder. This research was aimed at establishing reference values of vertebral heart size (VHS) of normal New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit.

Materials and Methods: Heart sizes of ten (5 females, 5 males) clinically normal NZW rabbits were studied.  A right lateral thoracic radiograph was obtained from each research animal. In each of the radiographs, the cardiac long axis (LA) was measured in centimeters, transposed onto the thoracic vertebrae from T4, and the result read in vertebral lengths. The cardiac short axis (SA) was similarly converted to lengths of thoracic vertebrae. The VHS was then obtained from the addition of the LA and SA thoracic vertebral lengths.

Results: Mean plus or minus standard error of mean (M±SEM) VHS was 8.5±0.3 vertebrae, and the difference between male and female VHSs was insignificant.

Conclusion: Clinically, VHS is objective and easily applicable in radiographic determination of heart size.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Addition of Yellow-Fleshed Sweet Potato Flour (Ipomoea batatas) and Fermentation on Chemical, Functional, Microbial and Sensory Attributes of an Instant Fura Powder

Olaniyi Olawale Ojuko, Abiodun Adekunle Olapade

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/39946

Aim: The objective of this work was to produce instant fura powder from the addition of yellow-fleshed sweet potato flour with millet flour and fermentation.

Methodology: Pearl millet flour and yellow fleshed sweet potato flour was used to produce fura in the ratio 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 with traditional fura (TF) 100% pearl millet as the control sample. However, preliminary sensory evaluation was conducted on the various blends and 70:30 ratios were most preferred which was used to prepare the final blend ratio of fermented and Non-fermented blended fura (FBF and NFBF) respectively. The samples were subjected to standard analytical methods for their chemical, functional, microbial and sensory attributes of the product.

Results: The protein contents ranged from 12.95 to 18.60%. The FBF and NFBF were not significantly different (P≤0.05) but shows variation to the TF. The TF had the highest content of 77.12% and 364.78kj/kg, followed by 69.12% and 355.45 kj/kg while the FBF had 68.03% and 345.56kj/kg of carbohydrate and energy value respectively. There were no significant different (P≤0.05) in the ash, crude fibre, and fat content of the samples analyzed. The moisture content of the samples ranged from 5.00 to 9.20%. The selected functional properties of the samples during three months storage showed that there was significantly different (P≤0.05) between the loose and packed bulk density throughout the storage periods but there was no different in the TF and FBF samples in their packed bulk density. However, FBF had the lowest bulk density throughout the storage period. The reconstitution index (RI) and water absorption capacity (WAC) showed there were no significant different (P≤0.05) between the TF and NFBF throughout the storage periods. The NFBF had the highest value of bulk density (packed) and reconstitution index of 0.81 and 42.67g/cm3 respectively while the TF had the highest value of WAC of 36.87g/cm3 during the third month storage. The calcium content ranged from 276.00 to 329.67mg/100. The iron content ranged from 60.00 TF to 80.13mg/100g for FBF. However, FBF had the highest value of 3.92 and (1.31 mg/100 g) of pH and titratable acidity (TTA) respectively. The 0Brix level ranged from 3.0 to 5.02. There were no significant (P≤0.05) in the beta-carotene content, the value ranged from 0.26 to0.44mg/100g. The phytate content ranged from 0.34 to 0.73mg/100g. The microbial results revealed that total viable count (TVC) of all the samples were within the acceptable limit during the three months storage. While the total mould and yeast count (TMYC) results revealed that the TF and NFBF sample had too numerous to count (TNTC) of TMY on the last week of the storage duration while the FBF sample is still within the microbial limit of detection (LOD). Total coliform count (TCC) showed that no coliform count was detected. There were no significant different (P≤0.05) in the texture of FBI and NFBF and the taste of TF and FBF. There was no significant different (P≤0.05) in the colour and overall acceptability of the all the samples.

Conclusion: It was evident from the study that fermentation had improved the proximate, functional compositions significant (P≤0.05), also reduced the phytate content and extend the shelf life of the products. More so, addition of yellow-fleshed sweet potato had greatly increased the mineral, vitamins, sugar contents and overall acceptability of the products. Apparently, this work has shown that more value would be added to sweet potato utilization.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Transactional Contract Fulfillment on Organizational Commitment in Selected Banks in Batticaloa District

F. A. Shamila, D. Thavakumar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/36572

Employees are the essence of success in every bank. In order to be successful, a bank must ensure the organizational commitment among the employees. Transactional Contract Fulfillment has been considered as one of the most important predictors of Organizational Commitment. In Sri Lankan context, a few empirical studies have been conducted with the relationship between Transactional Contract Fulfillment and Organizational Commitment of employees. So there is an empirical knowledge gap exists in the Transactional Contract Fulfillment and Organizational Commitment. Hence, this study attempts to fill this knowledge gap. This research is limited to the 12 Licensed Commercial Banks (LCBs) main branches in Batticaloa District. Total of 174 questionnaires were distributed to employees in banking sector in Batticaloa District. Only 150 questionnaires were received and used for analysis. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses with the support of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 19.0). The results show that the level of Transactional Contract Fulfillment and Organizational Commitment are in high levels in selected banks in Batticaloa District. Overall finding from this study is identified that, there is a strong positive relationship between Transactional Contract Fulfillment and Organizational Commitment in selected banks in Batticaloa District. Lastly, the regression analysis between Transactional Contract Fulfillment and Organizational Commitment indicated that 27.1% of total variance of Organizational Commitment is explained by Transactional Contract Fulfillment in selected banks in Batticaloa district. Hence, there are some policies that need to developed to enhance the Fulfillment of Transactional Contract to achieve the Organizational Commitment in selected banks in Batticaloa District.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Seismicity in Parts of African Plate

A. A. Abong, A. M. George, M. O. Kanu, E. B. Ulem, P. O. Robert

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/39231

This study investigated seismicity in parts of African plate to examine the pentad and annual variation of seismicity and to determine b-values for a period of 45 years. The data set for this work were obtained from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), a website owned by Northern California Earthquake Data Centre, Berkeley UC, USA. The selected data consisted of earthquakes with Mb ≥ 0.2 for the study area from 1st January 1971 to 31st December 2015 with focal depth from 0 – 700km.  A total of 40,481 earthquake events were used in the study with North Africa having 39,068; South Africa 957; East Africa 448 and West Africa 8.  A comparison of the patterns of seismicity in the regions of the study showed that seismicity is very high in North Africa, moderate in South Africa, low in East Africa and very low in West Africa. It was also found that the seismic activity in the different regions of Africa does not vary uniformly with time. Series in the four regions are fluctuating and no similarity among them. Analysis of the correlation among the four regions was stronger between North Africa and East African regions with correlation coefficient, r = 0.53. This shows that there might be a similarity between the two regions in the process of stress accumulation or release. The b - values in the study area were determined to be; North Africa: 0.49; South Africa: 0.47; East Africa: 0.69 and West Africa: 1.58.  This indicates that West Africa region has reduced stress and hence more stable than other regions of Africa since it is related to the West African Craton. Therefore, North Africa, South Africa and East Africa are more vulnerable to earthquake hazards than West Africa.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Ecological, Economical and Social Impact of Adopting Solar Cooking in Mubi Metropolis Adamawa State, Nigeria

Ojo Samuel, Mohammed Baba, Abasiryu Thlimabari

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/37401

Based on observed global trends, the use of solar cookers has proven to be a better, cheaper, healthier and more environmentally friendly source of energy for household cooking. This research work looked at the ecological, economical, social impacts and the benefits of adopting solar cooking in Mubi metropolis of Adamawa state. Feasibility studies carried out by the group shows that Mubi geographical location makes it viable for the adoption of solar cooking. An investigation conducted by the group also shows that if solar cooking is adopted, each solar stove used in Mubi can save one (1) tone off fire wood annually; about N4.7million can be saved daily (i.e. N1.7 billion annually) in addition to several health and social benefits.