Open Access Original Research Article

Review of Health Information in Hospitals` Reports - North Kordofan State- Sudan

Eman Malik Abdel Rahman Mohammed, Siham Ahmed Balla, Amel Elamine Mohamed Elnor, Taha Ahmed Elmukashfi Elsheikh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/40038

Introduction: Hospital as a health organization could have a reliable health information of high quality to assist in planning health interventions.

Objective: Objective of the study is to review the hospitals` reports for completeness and accuracy of health information with emphasis on five health indicators.  

Methods: A descriptive study carried in five main hospitals in Shiekan locality, North Kordofan State - Sudan. The study population was monthly health information reports of year 2015. The health information reports of second quarter for 2015 (April, May, June) was selected randomly. A total of 15 monthly hospitals` reports were reviewed using standard review checklist derived from the national format of the hospital report book. Ethical clearance was obtained and data was managed by SPSS version 20 and Microsoft Excel sheet. Descriptive statistic was presented in two tables and one graph.

Results: Documentation of dates of receiving and sending reports was shown in 12 and 10 hospitals` reports respectively. All hospitals` reports showed recorded classification of patients by age and sex. Diseases were recorded according to international classification of diseases (ICD) in 12 hospitals` reports. Authorship of general directors of the hospitals was shown in 3 reports. One hospital report had five health indicators completely documented.  The study health reports lack the accuracy of information.

Conclusion: The study hospitals` reports in North Kordofan State- Sudan were incomplete and inaccurate. Emphasis needed on periodic capacity building of hospital staff for improvement of quality of patients` information.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improved and Robust Estimators for Finite Population Variance Using Linear Combination of Probability Weighted Moment and Quartiles as Auxiliary Information

M. A. Bhat, S. Maqbool, S. A. Saraf, S. H. Malik, Yasmeena Ismail, Mir Subzar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/40116

By adapting the scheme of modification technique, we have developed some new ratio type variance estimators to estimate the finite population variance for skewed populations under survey. We have also derived the functions of efficiency to intensify the quality of efficacy of newly developed estimators. The bias and mean square error of present and newly developed estimators has been worked out through numerical problem to determine the improvement of newly developed estimators over present estimators.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tectonic Activities of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Implication of Seismicity in West African Region

Kadiri Umar Afegbua, Friday O. Ezomo, O. D. Osahon, Andrzej Kijko, Ansie Smit, Vicki-Ann Dimas

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/39760

The aim of this research is to contribute to insights on how the tectonic activities in the MAR may have been influencing observed seismic activities in the region of West Africa. The seismic activities in parts of Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) have been investigated with respect to seismicity in the West African region, using Statistical and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) techniques. Earthquake data were extracted from different catalogues in West Africa and international agencies for the study. The catalogues were declustered to remove foreshocks, aftershocks and repeated earthquakes. The different magnitude scales were also harmonized to moment magnitude (Mw). The statistical technique involved Regression Analysis, Focal Depth and Frequency Distribution analyses of observed events to establish distinct trend, using a decade-long of earthquake sub-catalogues at different completion levels. The results, especially from the statistical technique, clearly showed a trend of an increasing seismicity along the MAR in the West African region, with respect to number of earthquakes occurrence and magnitudes from 1963 to 2014. This could be as a result of progressively increasing seismic activities in response to tectonic stresses along the ridge. The results from PSHA, the b-values, activity rates and maximum magnitude for the investigated region are 0.82, 168 and 7.1 respectively. The b-value falls well within the acceptable tectonic seismicity of 0.72 to 0.82. The results also show that magnitudes 6.00 and 7.0 earthquakes are likely to occur approximately every 2 and 10 years along MAR; the probability of these events occurring annually is high at 98% and 92%; and the probability of their occurrence once in 50, 100 and 1000 years is 100%, 100%, 100% (for surface waves magnitude, Ms 6.0) and 98%, 99% and 100% (for Ms 7.0) respectively. The increase in seismic activities along the ridge may be responsible for observed increase of seismic activities especially in the West African countries along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. This calls for further research in future. Although, West Africa is not an active region compared to regions of high seismicity like East African Rift, Japan, etc., a trend that showed an increasing earthquake occurrence and appearance of larger magnitudes has been revealed in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interpretation of Aeromagnetic Anomalies of Degema and Oloibiri area of Niger Delta, Nigeria, Using Qualitative Approach

C. C. Ofoha, G. Emujakporue, A. S. Ekine

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/40247

Qualitative interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic data spanning Oloibiri and Degema area of Southern Niger Delta, Nigeria was undertaken in order to interpret anomalies that could (1) delineate structural features with low and high anomalous values within the area and (2) determine if there is any structural relationship between the offshore Niger Delta region and the onshore region. Regional-residual separation was applied to the digitized data covering Long. 6º0'0'' E - 7º0'0'' E and Lat. 4º30' N - 5º0i0ii N with a first order polynomial fitting using the X utility module of Oasis Montaj software. This filtering action gave rise to the regional and residual maps depicting anomalies relating to the low and high frequency components. The high frequency components/anomalies (or the residuals) emanate from shallow seated geologic bodies while the low frequency components/anomalies originate from the basement. The anomalies emanating from the deeply and shallow seated structural features have NE-SW, NW-SE, E-W and N-S directional trends.

Open Access Review Article

Bioactive Compounds from Lichens as Promising Biomaterial for the Treatment of Influenza Virus: A Review

Tran Van Cuong, Nguyen Thi Thoa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/39899

Influenza viruses remain a significant threat that can cause severe morbidity and mortality responsible for epidemics and pandemics worldwide. Lichens produce distinct secondary metabolic products with a wide range of biological activities, which are promising as the diversity source of biomaterials for pharmaceutical application. Furthermore, biological activities of natural lichen metabolites such as anti-oxidants, anti-microbial, anti-insecticidal, antipyretic, and anti-cancer agents of lichen have been reported in several review papers. However, the antiviral activity against influenza virus has not been mentioned in any previously published papers. In the present study, we aim to highlight and discuss the antiviral effects against influenza viruses of natural lichens and its derivatives in the current literature with an update of recent findings. In conclusion, natural lichens and constituents promote the inhibitory effect on various infectious diseases especially for influenza virus infection, it, therefore, is promising as a biomaterial for anti-influenza virus drugs development.