Open Access Short Research Article

Determination of Formation Constant and Thermodynamic Parameters for Interaction between Vanadyl Sulfate and Gliclazide in Aqueous – Organic Solvent at Various Temperatures

Esam A. Gomaa, Amr Negm, Marwa M. Rashed

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/39749

Our work aims to measure the conductivity of vanadyl complexes in an aqueous-organic medium at various temperatures ranging from (298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K). The experimental data of Λm and Λo were dissected in place of the calculation of formation constants for every form of the stoichiometric complexes. The formation constants (Kf) for the metal complexes were studied for every form of complexes obtained 1:1 and 1:2 metal to ligand molar ratio (M:L) via using formation equation. It is observed that the limiting equivalent conductance increased with the increment in temperature. Thermodynamic parameters (i.e., ΔG0f, ΔH0f, ΔS0f) are estimated from the temperature dependence of the ion formation constant. Vanadyl complexes show formation within experimentally various temperatures which are supported by the negative value of ΔG0f. The positive values of ΔS0f in most cases and positive values of ΔH0f indicate that the formation process occurred spontaneously as well as endothermic and vice versa at all respective temperatures.

Open Access Short Research Article

Assessment of Efficiency of Water Quality Management along Mzinga River

Doglas Benjamin Mmasi, Grace Festo Mvungi, M. Lihikilo Maimuna

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/38362

Water is considered as fundamental to development due to its contribution to economic growth and human welfare. If there is no good management of human activities such as agriculture, domestic, car washing, industrial wastes, water sources might be polluted. This study has been designed to assess the efficiency of water quality management along Mzinga river. Specifically, the study assessed (i) the current status of water quality from Mzinga river base on physical, chemical and biological parameters, (ii) the compliance of communities with water resources management needs and (iii) the implementation of the aspects of Tanzania National water policy for water quality management. Laboratory Analysis of water samples, Questionnaires, Structured Interview Guide as well as Physical observation were used to collect Primary data. Secondary data were collected from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and different reports on the website. Data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The measured results showed that Mzinga River pollution has increased based on physical, chemical and biological parameters compared to the measured status of the year 2014 and vary from one station to another according to activities carried on that area. Example pH at Mbangukwalu was (5.90), Darajani (5.85) and Msikitini (5.80) which is too acidic compared to that recommended by Tanzania Bureau of Standard(TBS) 6.5-8.5 but that of Videte station was 6.40 which is within the range. These values differ from that measured 2014 which ranges from 6.09-7.05 and are within the TBS standard, the reason for these variations was due to different activities practiced carried in these areas. Moreover, the overall measured status of heavy metal at the river is lower than that of the year 2010 as result of Karibu Textile Mills industry being closed. The result shows that, even though there is an existence of water quality framework, water quality at Mzinga River has deteriorated. Furthermore, the study shows that the compliance of communities with water resources management needs is weak. This study recommended that there should be shifting of people’s settlements and human activities such as Farming activities and Car washing along the river in order to comply with water resources management Act.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydro Pneumatic Tank Design for Surge Protection of Irrigation Pipeline Systems

Alaa Nabil El-Hazek

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/40253

In this paper, a simple irrigation pipeline system is proposed to represent the common situation of lifting water from a reservoir to another higher reservoir through a pipeline. Bentley HAMMER model is used to perform simulation and analysis of steady state and transients in the irrigation pipeline system. To protect the irrigation pipeline system against positive and negative hydraulic transient pressures due to power failure, a hydro pneumatic tank is employed. The diameter, liquid and tank volumes are studied versus max pressure and vapor volume affecting the irrigation pipeline system.

It is concluded that decreasing the diameter till 1/6 times the pipeline diameter, the max pressure decreases. More decreasing the diameter, the max pressure increases. Decreasing the diameter till 1/4 times the pipeline diameter, no vapor is formed. More decreasing the diameter, the vapor exists. As the liquid volume decreases; the max pressure increase for each value of the diameter, while the vapor increases for the diameters less than or equal 1/6 times the pipeline diameter. The time after which check valve of pump closes varies according to the diameter and liquid volume.

Design chart and nine design equations are obtained to get easy and effective design for hydro pneumatic tank. Employing the deduced design chart or the obtained design equations accomplish savings 55% in the diameter and 51% in liquid and tank volumes for the hydro pneumatic tank.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Ambient Air Quality and Noise Levels around Selected Oil and Gas Facilities in Nigeria

J. N. Ugbebor, B. Yorkor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/39573

The study investigated ambient air quality and noise levels around Oil and Gas facilities in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area (ONELGA), Rivers State. Seven stations including a control were assessed for air quality and noise study. Standard air sampling instruments were used to collect samples with control site located 5km from the study area. The results indicated low noise levels in the host communities; while computed noise Leq around oil and gas facilities in Ebocha, OB/OB and Gas turbine exceeded National Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA) limit by 10.1%, 5.3% and 1.1% respectively. The study revealed that SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter are the major causes of pollution around the oil and gas facilities. SO2, NO2 and PM2.5 are the main cause of pollution in Omoku town, while PM2.5 is the main cause pollution in Obrikom and Ebocha communities. Computed air pollution indices (API) indicated severe and heavy pollution around the oil and gas facilities; also, API values showed moderate pollution around Omoku town and light pollution around Obrikon town and Ebocha town, which may result in chronic health effects due to continuous exposures of host communities. The study further showed that concentration of PM2.5 did not meet the ambient air primary standards necessary to protect human health in the host communities. The conduct of epidemiological research in the host communities is necessary to assess and determine the health status of the people. Also, regulatory agencies should enforce compliance laws and regulations on the facilities owners.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Robust Approach to Survey Estimation Using Non-conventional Auxiliary Population Parameters

M. A. Bhat, S. Maqbool, S. A. Mir, Tehleel .

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/40222

In the present study, we have utilized the tool of modification technique for the precision and improvement of estimators to estimate the finite population variance, when the survey under investigation does not account for some of the important conditional distribution properties in its nature. The comparison and efficiency conditions of existing estimators with proposed estimators have been made through empirical study to seek the efficiency of modified and suggested estimators over existing estimators. Expressions for bias and mean square error have been derived up to the first order of approximation. The efficiency of modified and developed estimators is clearly based on the lesser mean square error of proposed estimators.