Open Access Original Research Article

Women’s Attitudes towards Wife-beating among Currently Married Women in Zambia

Thankian Kusanthan, Tamara Chansa-Kabali

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/41094

The present study examined factors associated with attitudes towards justification of wife-beating among currently married women in Zambia. This paper utilizes secondary data from the 2013 Zambia Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify various factors associated with women’s attitude towards wife-beating. Results show that the youngest women were more likely to justify and endorse wife-beating as compared to older women. Results further showed that women’s attitude towards wife-beating is associated with those who had marital duration of 15 years or more (1.02–1.47; P<0.0299), being educated at higher level (1.68–1.86; p < 0.001), being poor (1.78–1.89; p < 0.001), working (1.39–1.69; p < 0.001) and working (1.08–1.31; p < 0.001). Results further indicate that women whose husbands drank alcohol were 1.2 times more likely to endorse wife-beating as justified in contrast to those women whose husbands never drank alcohol. It is, therefore, essential that variables that increase women’s access to resources and knowledge such as education, employment for cash and media exposure are emphasized so as to enable women realize their worth and full potential. This is very important as it is only through such empowerment issues that women are able to fully access other facilities like maternal healthcare services without fear. It is also recommended for various stakeholders to bring about sensitization programmes that would be based on intimate partner violence in societies and to couples. This will help in building the knowledge base and raise awareness on some of the cultural norms that influence wife-battering which may result in reduced violence in due course.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Effect of Sizing Bolt Hole in Single-Lap Connection Using FEA

Anil Zafer, Orkun Yilmaz, Serkan Bekiroğlu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/40498

In this study, bolted tension members connected with pretensioned bolts are investigated by using ANSYS 18.2 finite element analysis software. The effects of pretension, increasing bolt hole size and contact sizing density are examined. In the analyses, non-linear behaviors for materials, geometry, and contacts are taken into account. Prepared models are compared regarding equivalent (von-Mises) stress, equivalent (von-Mises) plastic strain, tension forces and bolt shear forces. It is worth to say that less gap than 1 mm between bolt hole and bolt can create stress concentration in the bolt. The increasing gap causes to decrease tension force capacity or axial rigidity. Moreover, it is observed that the maximum shear forces in bolts take place on the middle bolts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Willingness to Pay for Biofertilizers among Grain Legume Farmers in Northern Ghana

Margaret Banka, Robert Aidoo, Robert Clement Abaidoo, Simon Charles Fialor, Cargele Masso

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/40457

Background: The call for use of improved Soil Fertility Management (SFM) technologies is a prerequisite to increase agricultural productivity among farmers. This study assessed farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for selected financially rewarding biofertilizer technologies/packages for legume production in northern Ghana. Primary data was elicited from 400 grain legume farmers selected from Northern and Upper West Regions of Ghana through a simple random sampling technique. The double bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) format of contingent valuation approach was employed to elicit willingness to pay values and determinants of farmers WTP was evaluated using the maximum likelihood estimation procedure.

Results: The results showed that about 60%, 25% and 46% of soya, cowpea and groundnuts farmers were willing to pay for the selected biofertilizers (Biofix, BR3267 and Legumefix respectively) at prices not exceeding GHC 14.00, GHC 28.00 and GHC 20.00 per 0.2kg of the respective biofertilizers. Legume farmers in Northern Region were however willing to pay higher for the three biofertilizer technologies as compared to their counterparts in Upper West Region. For 0.2 kg each of Biofix, BR3267 and Legumefix, farmers in Northern Region were willing to pay approximately GHC 17.00, GHC 12.00 and GHC 23.00 respectively whereas those in Upper West Region were willing to pay GHC 14.00, GHC 9.00 and GHC 11.00 for the same quantity of each biofertilizer. The study identified farming experience, FBO membership, awareness and previous use of biofertilizers as significant determinants of farmers’ willingness to pay for Biofertilizers.

Conclusion: Comparatively, mean prices farmers are willing to pay for these three technologies are below ex-factory prices, hence subsidizing the cost of production of these biofertilizers in the initial stages would be relevant for improving farmers’ uptake of these fertilizers. Sustained awareness creation through periodic education and sensitization by using FBOs as leverage points is also highly recommended to improve farmers’ understanding of the concept of biofertilizer use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Developing GIS-Based Soil Erosion Map Using RUSLE of Andit Tid Watershed, Central Highlands of Ethiopia

Ayele Desalegn, Abrham Tezera Gessesse, Fikrey Tesfay

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/40841

Soil erosion is a common phenomenon and major threat in many parts of Ethiopian highlands and it remains difficult to quantify and measure the amount of soil erosion. Geographic Information System (GIS) provides spatial information to identify erosion potential areas and useful tools to estimate the annual soil loss based on Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). This research was conducted in Central Highlands of Ethiopia, Andit Tid watershed which is 180 Km far from Addis Ababa north direction and covers 475 ha area. The aim of this research was to estimate the annual soil loss from the watershed and to map the topographic and anthropogenic factors for the planning and implementations of sustainable soil conservation and management system in the watershed. A Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) preferred for Ethiopian conditions and GIS was used to estimate soil losses and identify potential effect of erosion factors. We employed IDW- interpolation map for rainfall erosivity (R) factor, soil map for soil erodibility (K) factor, a 30m*30m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for topography (LS) factor, satellite image for vegetation cover (C) factor, land use and slope class map for management (P) factor. We also made the long-term correlation matrix among discharge, sediment loss and rainfall of the watershed. The result revealed that the annual soil erosion potential of the watershed ranges between 0-291 ton.ha-1yr-1with an average of 22.3 ton.ha-1yr-1. Therefore, GIS-based soil erosion model is a cost-effective method to estimate soil erosion as well as to identify priority area for sustainable land management practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rural Dwellers’ Perception of Effect of Charcoal Production on the Environment in Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria

P. O. Eniola, S. O. Odebode

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/39422

Despite the law promulgated by the Federal Government of Nigeria prohibiting illicit felling of trees, the number of charcoal producers is on the increase coupled with a sharp rise in the quantity of charcoal produced with its attendants environmental consequences. Thus, this study investigated rural dwellers’ perception of the effect of Charcoal Production (CP) on the environment in Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria. Eighty five respondents were selected through multistage sampling procedure. Data were collected through the use of structured interview schedule and were analysed, using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings show that the mean age of charcoal producers was 43 years. Majority (90.5%) was males, 90.6% of the charcoal producers were married and 35.3% had no formal education. Majority (80.0%) of the respondents made use of earth mound method of CP and 52.9% of them produced between 32 kg and 32000 kg of charcoal per annum. Most of the respondents (62.7%) perceived that charcoal production could lead to erosion, while 62.4% of them perceived that charcoal production would not only reduce the available trees for future use but also reduce the available air in the environment (54.1%). Regression result showed that farming activities (β= 0.305), farming system (0.301), years of experience (β= 0.365) and sources of trees (β= 0.280) were implicated in the level of perceived environmental effects of charcoal production in the study area. Thus, high level of perceived environmental effects of charcoal production was recorded. Therefore, charcoal producers should be educated on the effects of CP on the environment and to participate actively in the replacement of trees.