Open Access Commentary

Hidden Benefits of Shorter, Smaller Bodies

Thomas T. Samaras

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/40878

The advantages of smaller body size represent a major gap in our knowledge among a variety of disciplines, including medicine, public health, education, athletics, ecology and military science. The aim of this paper is to summarize several relatively unknown advantages related to shorter, smaller bodies. For example, shorter, smaller individuals are stronger pound for pound, have faster reaction times, and are more agile. While we frequently admire taller people for their leadership qualities, many short people have also been great leaders and successful business people throughout history. In addition, a wealth of research exists indicating that within similar environments, shorter, smaller people are healthier and live longer. Shorter people also help preserve our food, drinking water, resources and environment. The significance of this paper is that it provides factual information showing that it is unfair and unscientific to promote negative images of shorter and average height individuals as is commonly done in our world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Electricity Demand and Supply Scenario Analysis for Nigeria Using Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP)

Hanif Auwal Ibrahim, Gokhan Kirkil

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/39719

Electricity demand and supply forecasts are important tools for determining solutions to the problems in the electricity sector such as power outages. The Long Range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) modelling tool was used to project electricity demand and supply for a target year 2040. Three scenarios namely; Business as Usual (BAU), Energy Conservation (EC) and Renewable Energy (REN) were generated. The three scenarios were analyzed based on electricity demand and supply, environmental impacts and costs. The electricity demand in the target year of 2040 for the BAU and REN scenarios increased to 283.6 billion kWh, while that of the EC scenario increased to 233.8 billion kWh from 35.9 billion kWh in the base year (2010). The EC scenario has the least capital cost (44.2 billion USD less than the BAU scenario) and fixed costs (15 billion USD less than the BAU scenario), the EC scenario also has the second largest quantity of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions (1,004.8 million tons of CO2eq). The REN scenario has the least GHG emissions among the three scenarios (114.79 million tons of CO2eq) but is the most expensive scenario to implement because of its high capital (56.3 billion USD more the BAU) and fixed costs (4.1 billion USD more than the BAU scenario). As a result of the economic challenges faced by Nigeria, the EC scenario was found to be the most realistic path in providing uninterrupted power supply.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges of Adopting Energy Efficient Stoves in the Sudano Sahelian Region of Cameroon

Viyoi Catherine Tidze, Issac Roger Tchouamo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/40242

The study aimed at investigating the cultural and socio-demographic factors that affect household's probability to adopt energy efficient stoves (EES) in the Sudano-Sahelian region of Cameroon. It examined among other aspects, cooking patterns, stoves and fuel types. Major stove types used are the traditional three stone fire-place, improved mud stove, gas cookers and the metallic stoves. Through questionnaires, interviews with experts and a participant observation, the derived data was analysed using SPSS and in-depth analysis. This study Analyses the data related to the Sudano-Sahelian “agro-ecological” zone, which is one of the most affected by land degradation and desertification. While results show that there is potential for households in this region to adopt energy efficient stoves, the adoption rate is still low. Household size, cooking patterns, age and “physico-technical” characteristics of EES do not positively influence the adoption of EES. The results also indicate that there is a high degree of awareness on environmental changes, and the need to protect the environment. Thus, the study recommends the introduction to culturally acceptable stoves. These culturally friendly stoves will have a greater likelihood of being accepted and used by households, in the long run, thus improving the level of deforestation, soil fertility and mitigate climate change tendency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness and Knowledge of Cervical Cancer among Female Senior High School Students in Lower Manya Krobo Municipal in Ghana

Stephen Manortey, Daniel Opoku Agyemang

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/41116

Introduction: Cervical cancer is one of the significant public health problems in the world, especially in Less developed countries. In Ghana, cervical cancer is the leading cause of gynecological cancers. This study was aimed at assessing the level of awareness of this dreadful disease among adolescent female Senior High School students in the Lower Manya Krobo Municipality in the Eastern Region of Ghana.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of female adolescents was conducted using self-administered questionnaires to elicit information on demographic characteristics, knowledge, awareness, and perception of cervical cancer. The association of demographic characteristics and other important study variables were investigated. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for questions asked. Logistic regression was used to make predictions.

Findings: The mean age of participants was 16.6 years (±1.6). Majority (63.0%) had heard about the disease. About one-third (30.2%) reported getting their information from Television/Radio with a relatively lower proportion (0.4%) getting their information from the internet. Some risk factors identified by participants were unprotected sex (45.5%), sex at an early age (4.9%), excessive contraceptive use (4.1%). Cervical cancer knowledge was significantly associated with the school of enrollment (P-value 0.013), grade/form (P-value 0.002), and residential status of students (P-value 0.013). A respondent in a single-sex school was 2.98 times more likely to have knowledge of cervical cancer compared to the reference group, adjusting for all other variables. Only 29.3% and 17.7% knew about cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccines respectively.

Conclusions: There exist gaps in the knowledge of cervical cancer among adolescents in this study. There is the need for the creation of more awareness, with a special focus on the associated risk factors of the disease to ensure quality of life for the adolescents in their life course.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Scale to Measure the Well-being of Farmers in Kolar District of Karnataka

P. Naveen Kumar, N. Narasimha, M. T. Lakshminarayan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/41842

The farmers’ well-being is a dynamic process that gives people a sense of how their lives are evolving.  More precisely, it refers to the welfare of farmers which is influenced by both qualitative and quantitative parameters. Well-being may differ from individual to individual due to differences in their socio-economic characteristics. An attempt is made to construct a scale to measure well-being of farmers. The ‘r’ value of the scale was found 0.7129, which was significant at one per cent level indicating the high reliability and data were subjected for statistical validity, which was found to be 0.9313 for scale, this value is greater than the standard requirement of 0.70. Hence, the scale developed was found to reliable and valid. The well-being scale developed was administered to 30 farmers of Malur taluk in Kolar district of Karnataka state during 2017-2018. The results revealed that 70.33 per cent of farmers had medium to high level of well-being status and 26.67 per cent of farmers had low level of well-being status.