Open Access Short Research Article
In this study we have introduced a new reliable and robust ratio estimator for estimating the population variance by utilizing the auxiliary information as Gini’s mean difference. Efficiency conditions along with bias and mean square error has been worked out through a numerical demonstration under which proposed estimator have proven better than the existing estimators under consideration.
Open Access Minireview Article
Aims: The aim of this manuscript is to review the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and the relationship between diabetic nephropathy and genetic polymorphisms.
Definition: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the kidney diseases that progresses to harm the capillaries in the glomeruli of the kidneys.
Characterization: Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by diffuse scarring of the glomeruli and nephrotic syndrome.
Reason: The main reason for diabetic nephropathy is proposed as long-lasting diabetes and in many developed countries it is the main cause of dialysis. Diabetic nephropathy is categorized as one of the microangiopathic complications of diabetes. Several studies present that there is a correlation between diabetic nephropathy and genetic polymorphisms.
Conclusion: The genetic susceptibility may be an important factor in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Several genes, such as TNF-α, eNOS, GLUT1, ACE, FABP2, ADRB2 and ADIPO with some allelic polymorphisms were proposed to be important in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In addition, the angiotensinogen M235T and ANP polymorphisms were proposed to be associated with diabetic nephropathy development, but following studies couldn’t be able to replicate these observations. On contrary to several successful association studies, there are also numerous contradicting observations too. As a result of this, the relationship between diabetic nephropathy and genetic polymorphisms should be studied in detail for different populations. But while conducting such studies the genetic heterogeneity in populations should be taken into account and also the number of the cases studied should be as high as possible.
Open Access Original Research Article
Monitoring of ambient air quality parameters (NO2, SO2, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5) levels in the surrounding area of a fertilizer plant located at Aonla, (U.P.) India, was carried out using the respirable dust sampler. The specific objectives were the determination of annual and seasonal variability of levels of ambient air pollutants and their relationship with the fertilizer plant emissions. The results have shown a marked seasonal trend and temporal variability of pollutants levels in the study area, where the relative contribution of individual seasons towards variation of worst cases were computed for all the ambient air quality monitoring years and were used to quantify the most potent season in terms of having worst ambient air quality. Through the complete monitoring period, summer season (March to June) with characteristic high production rate in the fertilizer plant (especially in month of march) were found to be having the worst-case scenarios for all the selected years (2013-2015) with a frequency of 32-33%, followed by the winter season (December to February) where in about 28% of cases the prescribed limits of national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) were violated. Except summer and winter seasons, the remaining monsoon (July to September) and post-monsoon seasons (October to November) were also contributing, though less drastically.
Open Access Original Research Article
This study is aimed at identifying the problem associated with Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) in relation to the violation of assumptions of normality and constant variance. Mainly, the possible problem encountered when these assumptions are violated is the introduction of biases in the parameters of the fitted model thereby threatening the model’s efficiency. In this study, the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) is applied to overcome such problems and to ensure the efficiency of the model parameters. The major reasons being that the GLM does not require transformation and assumptions of classical regression. Instead, it employs a probabilistic approach in transforming the expected value of the dependent variable. The data used were obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin from 1981 to 2016, with each series consisting of 36 observations. The Gross Domestic Product (N’ Billion) was considered as the dependent variable (Yt) while Money Supply(X1t), and Credit to Private Sector(X2t)were considered as the independent variables (N' Billion). From the analysis, the results of the fitted regression model showed no significant relationship between the variables. The diagnosis on the residual series (using skewness, kurtosis, Jacque-Bera test and Breusch-Pagan-Godfrey test) provided sufficient evidence that both validity and efficiency of the model parameters are threatened. However, the results of the GLM procedure provided the much needed significance, validity, and efficiency of the model parameters. Further findings from GLM procedure revealed that the standard errors of the parameters of OLS were biased having been far larger in values than those of the GLM. Hence, for studies involving the regression of a discrete-time stochastic series such as GDP on Money Supply and Credit to Private Sector, the GLM is analytically tractable than the OLS.
Open Access Review Article
Variations in biological systems are due to genetic and environmental influences. Climate change has caused serious damages in potato production worldwide. A literature review on previous research works carried out in the Western Highlands of Cameroon aimed at determining the effects of genotype by environmental interaction on Cipira variety yield within 24 years. Yield loss of 35-65% was recorded for the production of ware and seed potato in the Western Highlands. A shift in planting seasons was observed over the years due to changes in climatic conditions. Diseases and pests were found to be on the increase in potato fields. The frequency of chemical control of disease pathogens rose from two to sixteen sprays per cropping season within the 24 years in the Western Highlands. Consequently, the cost of production for fungicides purchased to control late blight in potato increased from US$84 to US$672. This review recommends research on using potato genotypes possessing minor genes to develop varieties of short and long cycles, heat-stress, disease resistance and high yields for the Western Highlands of Cameroon.