Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Concentration and Anthropogenic Activities at Artisanal shops at Suame Industrial Area, Ashanti Region, Ghana

Ababio O. Felix, Sadick Adams, Adjei E. Owusu, Abunkudugu A. Akunai

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/41175

Pollution of heavy metals in industrial, residential areas and cities has become a public health issue in Ghana. Studies were conducted at Suame Industrial Area to investigate the degree of the pollution as a result of human activities at various artisan shops. Six (6) artisan's shops were selected namely: metal fabrication (MF), Auto mechanic (AM), car body part repair (CB), auto electrical (AE), blacksmith (BS) and auto spray. Soil samples were collected from the surface of the soil at 0–10 cm depth with the aid of an auger. A control sample was also collected (generally about 100 m away from the cluster and of the same geology) where neither car repairs, industrial nor commercial activities took place. The samples were placed in labelled polyethene bags and transported to the laboratory for analysis. The heavy metals analysed were: Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn). The results indicate that there was environmental contamination since the levels of heavy metals were high as compared to the background concentration. The quantification of anthropogenic input of the heavy metals was in order: Pb> Cu> Zn> Cr> Fe> Mn> Co. Public education on the need to encourage the creation of effective regulation and control measures including zoning and clear demarcation, regulation of industrial activities is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Oxalate Content of Some Selected Species of Hibiscus Cultivated in Kwilu State/Democratic Republic of Congo

Kayembe S. Jean, Mabaya S. Odon, Moya K. Seraphin, Nsikungu K. Maurice, Kindala T. Junior

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/38342

Aims: This work aimed to determine the total content of oxalate on some species of Hibiscus collected at Kwilu state/Congo-Dr, and to determine the variation of this anti-nutritional factor according to the plant age and after the removal of first cooking water.

Study Design: Different species of Hibiscus are as well consumed in Kwilu state (DRC), where they are often dried in order to be consumed during the dry season. To date, it is well known that high-oxalate diets may increase the risk of kidney stones and others health problems in susceptible people.

Place and Duration of Study: Different samples of Hibiscus were collected in rain season (January to April 2016), in Kwilu state (DRC). Laboratory analyses were done at the Department of Chemistry (Lacoren/Unikin).

Methodology: Ten species of Hibiscus were collected, and their oxalate content was determined using volumetric titration’s method with a standard solution of potassium permanganate. 

Results: The results showed significant oxalate content, ranging from 1056.12 +/- 34.43 mg/100 g to 422.40 +/- 23.71 mg/100 g of fresh weight. The elimination of first cooking water reduces this anti-nutritional factor to more than 70%. The oxalate content variation with the age of three selected Hibiscus has been investigated which shows a maximum level of high oxalate content between 55 to 60 days of plant development.   

Conclusion: A non-negligible concentrations of oxalate were found from the ten species of Hibiscus used in this work, regardless to the plant age. The removal of first cooking water may serve to greatly reduce the oxalate content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transnational Social Network of Turks Living in the USA, and Turkish Associations in the USA

Emel Yigitturk Ekiyor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/41541

An indicator of immigrants’ involvement in various areas of social life and of transnational activities in the host country following transnational migrations is their relationship with non-governmental organisations. In this context, this study is concerned with the views held by Turks living in the USA in relation to Turkish immigrant associations in the USA and their ties with those associations. The research data were collected from Turkish immigrants living in 34 different states of the USA through questionnaires. Immigrant associations are the collective organisations through which immigrants develop their social networks and social capital. However, the functions those associations fulfil and their purposes influence immigrants’ ties with those associations. The findings of the research showed that the Turks living in USA took part in the social networks of immigrant associations. The findings also indicated that the transnational ties between the Turkish immigrants haven’t yet strengthened enough.

Open Access Original Research Article

Solid Waste Management Practices at Egerton University, Njoro Campus and the Community Around

J. M. Kariuki, B. Soi, A. N. Mutio, D. N. Kinyanjui

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/36174

Aim: The purpose of this study was to characterise existing solid waste management practices in the study area.

Study Design: The study was a cross-sectional survey

Place and Duration: It was carried out between January – May 2009 within Egerton University, Njoro campus and the community around it, all within Njoro division.

Methodology: The sample comprised 220 respondents that were drawn from tenants, farmers and the business community. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather quantitative data which was analysed using frequency tables by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software.

Results: The study established that use of open dumpsite as the final disposal option was done within the University as well as for the community around the university. Open dumps and waste pits near living areas were fairly common outside the university but very rare within the University. Whereas waste collection was common in the university, it was rare outside the University.  Waste burning was fairly common outside the university with more than 70% of the business people and the tenants burning their waste whereas tenants and students within the University never burnt their waste.  Waste minimisation practices like shopping with a durable bag were practiced by over 50% of the respondents. Waste separation, practiced by 36% of the respondents was not practiced for environmental reasons but to extract materials that were still useful. 

Conclusion: waste management within the university was better due to the presence of  waste collection and centralised disposal which were lacking in the community outside the university.

Open Access Review Article

Demographic Dividends in Sudan: Opportunities and Challenges

Yasin Elhadary, Hillo Abdelatti, Abdel Hamid Balla El Nour

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/41955

This paper seeks to investigate the demographic dividends in Sudan by focusing on its opportunities and challenges. The concept of the demographic dividends has joined the domain of development after an examination of the East Asian "economic miracle", which occurred in the years the 1960s to 1990s. The overall objective of this paper is to probe potential socio-economic benefits generated by such chance and to see how Sudan is going to reap from the currently increasing working age population. The paper is depended mainly on a series of sources, including official censuses, international and national reports, and socio-economic surveys conducted in Sudan and abroad. The paper has come out with that, Sudan is lagging behind in getting maximum benefit out of the demographic windows and that even the decision makers are not aware of the demographic dividend. Lack of clear policy towards the youth, high rate of unemployment, massive informal migration, brain drain and lack of investment in human capital (development) are some barriers that shaped the situation of the population in Sudan. To benefit out of the opportunities of the demographic dividend, the paper suggested that Sudan should formulate proactive policies to control fertility, ensure high quality of education and vocational training. This paper also aims to enhance the knowledge of demographic dividend and open doors for further studies.