Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Heavy Metals in Brewery Water Sources and Pito Brewed from Them in Tamale Metropolis and Tolon District, Ghana

Cephas Azubire Atooh, Elias N. K. Sowley

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/41249

Aims: To assess the effect of heavy metals (iron, manganese, zinc and copper) in brewing water sources and Pito brewed from them in the Tamale Metropolis and Tolon District.

Study Design: A Nested Design was used for the experiment replicated in three locations. 

Place and Duration of Study: Samples of water sources and Pito brewed from heavy metals were taken from Nyankpala in the Tolon District and Education Ridge and Fuo communities in the Tamale Metropolis from August 2014 to November 2014.

Methodology: A total of 32 samples of water and Pito brewed from heavy metals were analyzed at Water Research Institute of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Tamale using the procedure prescribed by American Public Health Association (APHA) (2017), 20th Edition, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Buck Scientific 210VGP Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Buck Scientific, Inc. East Norwalk, USA).

Results: The results revealed that heavy metals mean concentrations in water sources and Pito brewed from them were 1.69 and 60.50 mg/L for iron, 0.02 to 1.88 mg/L for manganese, 0.17 to 1.69 mg/L for zinc and not detected (nd) to 0.10 mg/L for copper respectively. Iron and manganese levels water sources and Pito brewed from them were significantly different (P= .05). However, mean zinc and copper concentrations in water sources and Pito brewed from them were not significantly different (P = .05).

There were positive and negative correlations between heavy metals in water sources and Pito brewed from them. The negative correlations were found to be significant (P=.01) and (P=.05) while the positive correlations were not significant (P=.01) and (P=.05).

Conclusion: The mean iron levels in water and Pito were above the World Health Organisation (WHO) standard. Manganese, zinc, copper in water and Pito brewed from them were within the WHO acceptable standards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation in Some Oil Spilled Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria

S. I. Ovuomarie-kevin, C. P. Ononugbo, G. O. Avwiri

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/42767

Background: Oil spillage is often an unintended release of crude oil into the environment as a result of human activity. Crude oil spills in the oil and gas installations, radionuclide material used for geological mapping, well logging and other related activities can also increase the background ionizing radiation. Long term exposure to this low level radiation can lead to many health related risks.

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the health risk from exposure to low levels of background ionizing radiation in some oil spilled communities of Rivers State.

Method: An in-situ measurement of radiation exposure rate of Bon-ngia, Bolte-kpan, Te-oo-goo and Nupene communities were done using well calibrated radalert-50 and 100 meters, a Global Positioning System (Garmin 765) and radiation models.

Results: The mean background radiation exposure rate of Bon-ngia, Bolte-kpan, Te-oo-goo and Nupene are 0.0110±0.005, 0.0132±0.002, 0.0103±0.003 and 0.0113±0.003 mRh-1 respectively. The mean of absorbed dose rates, annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), are within their permissible safe values while the mean excess lifetime cancer risk calculated were slightly higher than the safe value. The estimated dose to organs showed that the testes have the highest organ dose of 0.11 mSvy-1 while the liver has the lowest organ dose of 0.06 mSvy-1. The radiation contour maps of the study area presented the distribution of radiation within the spilled communities. The estimated excess lifetime cancer risk values indicates that the chance of contracting cancer for residents of the study is low and the effective dose from present exposure rate to the adult organs investigated is insignificant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Disparity of Key Demographic Factors on Broadband Technology Usage among Teenagers: Gender as Prime Focus

Husam Abdulhameed Hussein, Ishola D. Muraina

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/42264

Aims: Broadband internet and broadband-enabled devices have been considered as alternative approaches to increase the productivity of teenagers in their respective schools. However, there is less or no research that establishes interference of some required factors for usage of broadband technology on the teenagers’ gender. Therefore, the study presents the disparity in the usage of broadband technology among teenagers together with the interference on their gender brought by some factors.

Study Design: The research used simple random sampling approach which gave equal chances of selection to the participants.

Place and Duration of Study: This research engaged teenagers who are secondary school students in Kedah state of the northern region of Malaysia as the unit of analysis, due to their ability to provide facts on the internet related issues.

Methodology: A comparative design approach in an experimental form is chosen to observe the extent of interference of some demographic factors on the gender of teenage users of broadband technology. Over 400 teenagers were invited to four different internet centres and 373 participants were selected from the invitees.

Results: The study showed that teenagers’ educational level, living locations, family sizes and their parents’ jobs are the factors to measure the disparity created by the gender of teenagers while using broadband technology. Hence, upper hands are with the teenagers who are female over the male’s counterparts in terms of usage of broadband technology as brought by the highlighted factors.

Conclusion: Study on the disparity of broadband technology usage by gender could assist the broadband internet service providers to further understand the factors that foster differences in the gender of teenage users of their services. This will be further studied by focusing on the approach to bridge the created gaps between the gender of users of broadband technology among teenagers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonality, Collinearity and Quality Assessment of the Physicochemical Properties of Okoro River Estuary, South Eastern Nigeria

John Ukpatu, Enenwan Udoinyang, Lawrence Etim

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/24610

Aim: To decipher the effect of season on the water quality of Okoro River estuary.

Study Design: The study was designed to cover two wet and two dry seasons for 24 months. Triplicate samples were taken per month and mean taken to represent each month. Fifteen (15) physicochemical parameters were measured for 24 months.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Okoro River estuary, Southeastern Nigeria between April 2011 and March 2013.

Methodology: The analyses of physicochemical properties followed standard protocol in American Public Health Association (APHA).

Results: Nine physicochemical variables: temperature, pH ,TSS, TDS , DO, water hardness, Na and rainfall varied significantly between rainy and dry season (p<0.05), while six variables: BOD5 THC, Ni, K, Cu and Zn were not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two seasons. The result also showed collinerity among the physicochemical parameters. Salinity fluctuated from 24.10‰ in the rainy season to 30.90‰ in the dry season. Temperature ranged from 24.7ºC to 34.4ºC with mean annual water temperature of 28± 1.934ºC. Water temperature decreases with increase in rainfall. The pH values indicate slightly alkaline nature with mean of 7.38± 0.58. The geochemical indices of the three metals (Ni, Cu and Zn) ranged between 0.06 – 0.26 mg/l and showed signs of trace metal pollution. BOD ranged from 2.01 – 4.22 mg/l with a mean value of 3.04± 0.54 while DO ranged from 6.1 – 8.24 mg/l with a mean value of 7.24± 0.72 mg/l. The maximum value of 716.0 mg/l recorded for sodium indicated saline intrusion in the estuary. The total hydrocarbon content (THC) level of 0.01-2.65 mg/l indicated that the estuary is suffering from oil pollution. The pollution content in the estuary was as a result of anthropogenic perturbation.  The water of the estuary was found to be hard (418.68 ± 90.6 mg/l) and may not serve as good source of drinking for the community since the value is higher than 300 mg/l recommended by WHO, 2011 but could serve as an excellent source of natural resources development.

Conclusion: The results revealed that most of the physicochemical parameters were significantly different at (p=0.05) between the dry and rainy seasons. Positive and negative associations indicated natural selection and connection of the physicochemical and environmental parameters in the ecological system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Change in the Diurnal Temperature Range over Puerto Rico between 1950-2014

Méndez-Tejeda, Rafael

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/42859

This paper analyzes the spatial dependence of annual trends in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) of Puerto Rico (PR) from 1950–2014. The DTR is a useful indicator of climate change and average temperature changes. Observation records indicate that the DTR has decreased in the last 64 years because of changes in the difference between the minimum and maximum temperatures. The 13 studied meteorological stations have shown a negative trend of −1.33 in the DTR for PR. The minimum temperature (Tmin) has shown a greater increase than the maximum temperature (Tmax) over the period analyzed. Because of this behavior, the stations can be categorized into two large groups. For nine stations (Aguada, Ceiba, Guayama, Isabela, Manatí, Mayaguez, Lajas, Ponce, and San Juan), the variability of the minimum temperature in the mountain of Puerto Rico increased during the 1970s, while for four stations (Aibonito, Corozal, Juncos, and Utuado), Such an increase in average temperature was manifested later, in the 1980s. The Mann-Kendall analysis shows that nine out of the thirteen stations have a p-value 0.005, this shows that the tendency to decrease of the DTR is strong. A more detailed analysis is recommended to determine the cause of this behavior.