Open Access Original Research Article

HIV Model Enhancing UNAIDS Goal to End AIDS: Simulations in Botswana

Isack E. Kibona, Cuihong Yang

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/41918

In this paper we have modelled the spread of HIV infections enhancing UNAIDS goal to end AIDS. The goal has two dependent missions.One side of the goal is a 90-90-90 target, that by 2020, (90% of all people living with HIV (PLHIV) should know their status, 90% of whose status is known should be under ART, and 90% of patients under ART should have their viral load suppressed.  On the other side, by 2030; UNAIDS requires to minimize up to at least 90% of both new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths. According to the model, the goal is linked to the basic reproduction number (R0). When R0 < 1 the number of new HIV infections decreases. Methodology: According to the model, we have demonstrated that HIV spread is controllable under some conditions in Botswana. For this country, R0 ≈ 0:5051 which is below the threshold value R0 = 0:6000. Thus, suggesting her potential to achieve UNAIDS goal. According to our evaluation from the model, by 2020, 92% of PLHIV are expected to be under ART. Interestingly, in Botswana new HIV infections are mostly due to people who are not under ART. By 2030 not only that 96% of PLHIV are expected to be under ART but also both new HIV infections and AIDS related deaths are expected to decrease above 90% since their highest in 2010. Our main concern is to provide more mathematical insights for UNAIDS to keep up with progress of the goal to end AIDS by 2030.

Open Access Original Research Article

Radiological Hazards Assessment of Produced Water from Some Oil and Gas Flow Stations in Delta State, Nigeria

E. Esi Oghenevovwero, O. Avwiri Gregory

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/41478

The radiological hazards of produced water collected from seven oil and gas flow stations (fields onshore) of Delta State, Nigeria were estimated using thallium activated 3”x3” Sodium iodide [NaI(TI)] detector. Twenty- one samples of produced water from seven flow stations waste pit were collected within the oil fields using standard methods. From the radionuclide results, the radiological hazards were computed.  Comparing the computed average values for representative gamma index, annual effective dose equivalent (Outdoor) annual effective dose equivalent (indoor) which are 0.104 mSv/y, 0.0229 mSv/y and 0.03276 mSv/y respectively with the standard of 1.0 mSv/y, it was observed that the results are all below the recommended limit. The computed absorbed dose rate ranged from 4.570 nGyh−1 to 10.088 nGyh−1 with an average value of 6.68 nGyh−1 was found to be higher than the acceptable standard of 1.5 mSvy-1. The results obtained in this study provides a baseline map of radiological hazard levels of produced water that may likely be discharge in to the environment and may be used as reference information to assess any changes in this studied area. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection since produced water are widely been discharged in the environment during oil and gas productions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Three Steps Second Derivative Adams Moulton Methods for the Solution of Stiff Differential Equations

D. J. Zirra, Y. Skwame, D. Gideon

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/39444

In this paper, the continuous forms of the Second Derivative Generalized Adams methods (SDGAMs) and its hybrid formed by adding one off-grid collocation point for step number k = 3 were derived. These continuous formulations were evaluated at some desired points to give the discrete schemes which constitute the block methods. Convergence analysis was carried out on both the block methods derived and it was observed that the block methods are both consistent and zero stable, implying that they are both convergents. The block methods were implemented on the solution of some stiff initial value problems. It was observed that the second derivative hybrid generalized Adams methods (SDHGAMs) performed better than the conventional second derivative generalized Adams methods (SDGAMs) when compared with the exact solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Practices and Knowledge of Household Residents to Lead Exposure in Indoor Environment in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

A. T. Adeolu, O. E. Odipe, M. O. Raimi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/43133

Lead has been recognized as a serious environmental pollutant known to cause health hazards to people exposed to. Human activities have spread lead widely throughout the environment; hence exposure to lead and lead chemicals occurred from environmental media. Few studies have captured the exposure of people to lead particularly in the indoor environment, thus, this study was designed to assess the practice and knowledge of household residents to lead exposure in indoor environment in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Ibadan metropolis was divided into three (high, medium and low) density areas based on socio-geographical factors. Using structured, interviewer-administered questionnaires, 200 household residents were randomly sampled from each density area. A total of six hundred (600) household residents were surveyed and used for the analysis. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and chi-square statistical analyses. Findings revealed the level of knowledge to lead poisoning was relatively high in medium (52.5%) and low-density areas (60.0%). The smoking habit of the residents in the medium density area (20.5%) was found to be higher than the low-density area (12.1%). The socio-cultural practices carried out by the household residents affect their predisposition to lead exposure and its perceived health hazards. Hence, there is need for widespread campaigns in order to raise awareness among the community members about lead exposure in the indoor environment and its effects, also the need to engage the cleaner fuel technologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytoextraction and Risk Assessment Synergy of Three Edible Plants in Mining Area

C. I. A. Nwoko, A. U. Nkwoada, L. U. Onu, P. C. Njoku, D. O. Ogbonnaya

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/43349

The phytoextraction and risk assessment synergy of Arachis hypogea (groundnut), Zea maize (Corn) and Citrullus colocynthis L. (Melon) was investigated at a mining area contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn heavy metals. The metal concentrations in plant matter and soil were determined using AAS. The average pH at 5.2 showed a slightly acidic soil while the total organic content and electrical conductivity were low. The studied metals exceeded the Nigerian FEPA guidelines as well as EU threshold values at the sites. Increase in Cd concentration in the North and South caused a corresponding decrease in plant yield. The maize appreciably accumulated more Pb than melon and groundnut. The phytoplants at the West sampling point accumulated more Zinc and melon grown at the west accumulated highest zinc concentrations of up to 1100 mg/kg. The Presence of Cu metal at low concentrations favoured an equivalent increase in weight of harvested groundnut seed. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) showed a correlation that hyperaccumulators had equivalent higher CV distribution. The values of Cd, Cu and Pb exceeded the Health Risk Index value of 1 in all the three edible phytoplants. The Cd demonstrated the lowest Bioconcentration Factor of (0.03) within the sampling area, among studied metals and the three edible plants. Thus Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) results agreed with the Daily Intake of Metals (DIM) results, that consumption of any of the three edible plants are unsafe and poses a health risk to locals; hence, the synergy of THQ and DIM in evaluating experimental data is detected in this study.