Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Fresh and Smoked Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Ibadan, Nigeria

Folake Titilayo Afolabi, Folake Kehinde Fabunmi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/26737

Aim: This study aimed to determine the microbiological quality of fresh and smoked Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected randomly from two fish markets (Asejire and Eleyele) and University of Ibadan fish farm.

Study Design: Microbiological analyses of the samples were done using standard microbiological procedures.

Place and Duration of Study: Fresh Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) species fish samples were collected at Eleyele, Asejire and University of Ibadan fish farm. All samples were collected randomly and placed in sterile polythene bags. The fresh fish samples were also collected in clean plastic containers and transported to the Postgraduate Laboratory of the Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan for analyses.

Methodology: The fish samples were cultured and isolates were obtained from the flesh, gills and guts. The pH was determined by weighing 3g of the fish samples and the samples were washed in sterile distilled water. The fish samples were also analyzed to determine their proximate composition. The fish samples were analysed using standard microbiological procedures.

Results: A total of 90 bacterial isolates were obtained from the different fish samples with their bacterial count ranging from 1.0 × 102 – 5.0 × 105 CFU/g.  The bacterial diversity were; Staphylococcus aureusSalmonella sp., Shigella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosaKlebsiella pneumoniaKlebsiella oxytocaKlebsiella ozaenaeAcinetobacter baumaniiProteus vulgarisEscherichia coliEnterobacter aerogenesCitrobacter freundii and Moraxella catarrhalis. A total of 51 fungal isolates were obtained also with the fungal counts ranging from 1.0 × 102 – 6.0 × 10CFU/g. The three (3) species obtained from the samples were identified as Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. and Penicillium sp. The frequency of occurrence of the bacterial isolates was highest (27%) for Shigella sp. and least (1%) for both Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Conclusion: In the current study the fish samples obtained from the different locations could be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and therefore Catfish and Tilapia fish should be properly washed, cooked and smoked before consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges of Community-based Ecotourism Development in Southern Eastern Nigeria: Case Study of Iko Esai Community

Sijeh Agbor Asuk, Atim Ayuk Nchor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/42603

The research assessed the challenges of community-based ecotourism (CBE) in Iko Esai Community, Cross River State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was adopted for the study. Two wards were randomly selected from four wards in the study area and with sample size of 5.57% of total population, 150 structured questionnaires were administered for data collection. Data were analysed using frequency tables and chi-square analysis in STATVIEW version 5.0.1 at 5% probability level. The results indicated that the challenges militating against CBE in the area were lack of ecotourism marketing (P = .0496), limited access to funds (P = .0004), negative impact of tourism on the indigenes (P = .0003) and poor infrastructural development (P = .0483). Although results from the respondents indicated that conflicts between stakeholders, absence of capacity building and balanced sharing of benefit between tourism operators and the communities, the chi-square analysis indicated that these challenges significantly limited CBE in the area. The indigenes exhibited willingness to develop CBE in the area but their effort has been frustrated by these challenges. Thus there should be active participation and collaboration with stakeholders for the development of CBE in the area while encouraging the full involvement of the community in the development process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial Isolates in Males and Non- pregnant Females with Urinary Tract Infection in University of Benin Health Centre, Nigeria

F. I. Akinnibosun , V. E. Okolo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/18271

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) have become the most common hospital and community acquired infections resulting in high morbidity. The prevalence of bacteria causing UTI as well as their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics was investigated at the University of Benin Health Centre (UBHC), Benin city, Nigeria. Bacterial species isolated from the urine samples analyzed were Escherichia coliKlebsiella sp. Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. UTIs in this study, was found to be more prevalence in females (60% for 15- 26 years and 53% for 27- 32 years) than in males (40% for 15- 26 years and 47% for 27-32 years). The isolates were identified by carrying out standard biochemical tests and comparing with characteristics of known taxa. Susceptibility tests were performed by Bauer-Kirby Disc diffusion method with eleven antibiotics. The results were expressed as susceptible ̸̸ resistant. Gram-negative isolates had a prevalence of 66.7%, while Gram-positive isolates had 33.3%. E. coli were found to be the most prevalence occurring in 80% of the samples, while the least prevalent were Pseudomonas aeruginosaStaphylococcus sp and Enterococcus sp occurred in 40% of the samples. All isolates were found to be susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Gram-positive isolates were 100% resistant to Penicillin, while the Gram-negative isolates were 100% resistant to Amikacin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Impact of Motorcycles in Urban Transport on Air Pollution: A Case of Douala City in Cameroon

André Talla, Paul Salomon Ngohe-Ekam, Aurel Thibaut Nkeumaleu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/43224

Aims: This work aimed to evaluate the impact of motorcycle taxis on air pollution for the particular case of Douala city in Cameroon.

Study Design:  Samples were collected from motorcycle drivers and an exhaust gas analyser was used for better understanding of this area of ​​activity. It was done to obtain the different amounts of pollutants emitted by these motorcycles in different traffic situations.

Place and Duration of Study: Douala Urban Community, National Advanced School of Public Works, and Energy, Water and Environment Laboratory of National Advanced School of Engineering (University of Yaounde I) between February 2017 and June 2018.

Methodology: The statistical data concerning the motorcycles in circulation, estimated around 233,799, in the transport sector between 2009 and 2013 in Cameroon, were used for the present study. Using these data, the correlation of the evolution of motorcycles in circulation in the transport sector was established. For motorcycles exhausts, atmospheric pollutants namely, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC) were measured.

Results: A survey of 500 motorcycle taxis, revealed that 58% of motorcycles were acquired prior to release, 56% was less than 5 years old and 95% consumed gasoline. The survey also revealed that 64% of motorcycles operating in urban transport had a tax power of between 6 and 7 HP. The different amounts of pollutants, emitted on a sample of 45 motorcycle taxis, followed that in slow traffic in urban areas (5 km/h), CO (depending on their aging condition) was emitted between 0.40 and 3.02 g/kg; the Euro 3 standard on motorcycle emissions recommends a limit of 1 g/kg. In the same traffic situation, maximum values ​​for HC and NOx, were 0.62 g/kg and 3.10×10‑3 g/kg, respectively; values ​​were within the limits set by the same standard, namely 0.8 g/kg and 0.15 g/kg respectively. The statistics available between 2007 and 2011 revealed an almost linear evolution of the "motorcycle" phenomenon in urban centers in Cameroon, making it possible to put 647,000 motorcycles into circulation between 2007 and 2018.

Conclusion: Traffic situation, aging of the motorcycles and nature of the fuel revealed their influence on the emissions of pollutants by motorcycle taxis. These results are a useful tool to monitor the air pollution levels caused by motorcycles in urban transport.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Inquiry into the Meaning and Essence of Technology

Theodore John Rivers

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/43416

Most definitions of technology offer simple and unobstructed descriptions of this term, while some of them also add a description of technology’s essence, the latter of which has also been questioned by some authors.  In light of the foregoing, this paper has two tasks: 1) to define technology for both its material and immaterial effects, making note of tools, devices, machines, and apparatuses on the one hand, and procedures, organisations, methods, and strategies on the other, and 2) to discuss and identify its essence.  In this twofold attempt, the relationship between definition and essence is analysed. Apart from any underlying complexity, this relationship indicates that essence means something other than a simple definition because definition and essence are not conterminous.