Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological, Physicochemical and Enzyme Activity Profile of Ayadehe Coastal Wetland Soils, Nigeria

Ofonime U. M. John, Samuel I. Eduok

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/42243

Aims: The present study aimed to determine the microbiological, physicochemical and enzyme activities of Ayadehe Coastal wetland soils in Itu local government area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria to ascertain their potentials for effective management.

Study Design: Coastal wetland soils from three depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm) were assessed in the wet and dry seasons of 2016 and 2017.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Ayadehe coastal wetland, Itu, Akwa Ibom state and the soil samples analysed at the Microbiology and Central Research Laboratories, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria in 2016 and 2017.

Methodology: The isolation, enumeration, characterisation and identification of microbial isolates were carried out using cultural procedures. The physicochemical and enzyme activities of soils were assessed using standard procedures.

Results: Total heterotrophic bacterial and total Fungal counts from 0 – 45 cm soil depths ranged from 5.7 to 7.98 Log₁₀CFU g-1 in the wet and dry seasons. The nitrifying bacteria, phosphate solubilising bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria counts of the soils from 0 - 45 cm depth ranged from 0.0 to 5.6 Log10 CFU g-1which was 1.01 to 1.05 times higher in the wet season than the dry season, and the difference was significant at p = 0.05. The bacteria from the wetland soils included members of the genera AcinetobacterAlcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Beijirinckia, Cellulomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Sarcina, Serratia, and Staphylococcus. The fungi belonged to the genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, and Rhizopus. The particle size distribution indicated the soil was sandy clay loam and the pH ranged between 6.0 ± 0 and 6.2 ± 0.01. Enzyme activities of soils also showed variations (p = 0.05) in the wet and dry seasons with strong positive linear correlations between dehydrogenase and microbial densities.

Conclusion: The favourable pH, the presence of diverse enzymes and the rich assemblage of microorganisms to carry out critical ecosystem services indicates the potential to support crop production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multi-model Analysis of the West African Monsoon: Seasonal Evolution and the Monsoon Onset

Alioune Badara Sarr , Moctar Camara, Ibrahima Diba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/43311

The economy of West Africa and particularly in the Sahel region depends primarily on  agriculture. Most of its agricultural productivity is achieved during the monsoon season (July- September) when the greatest amount of rain is recorded. The goal of this paper is to study the seasonal evolution of West African rainfall with a special focus on the onset of monsoon using five (5) regional climate models (RCMs) involved in the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment) program. These RCMs have a horizontal resolution of 0.44° × 0.44° (about 50 km) and are initialised and forced to their lateral boundaries by the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The results show that the intra-seasonal variability of the West African monsoon (WAM) is well reproduced by RCMs despite the presence of some biases. The analysis of the dynamics of the West African monsoon shows that almost all models simulate a strong increase of the heat flux over the Sahara desert especially on its western part which promotes a substantial rise in the monsoon flow over the Sahel. This increase of low-level monsoon flow may induce an enhancement of the low-level specific humidity and the convective activity over the Sahel just after the onset. Moreover, the RCMs show a northward position and an intensification of the AEJ just before the monsoon onset. The upper levels divergence seasonal evolution is similar with the rainfall band with collocation of the maxima suggesting that it may be used as a tool to better forecast the WAM onset.

Open Access Original Research Article

Leaf Protein Concentrates (LPC) for Food Fortification from Unconventional Plants of the Himalayas, India

Sanjay Sachan, Anuradha Dutta, Shweta Suri, Soni Tilara

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/42280

Aim of the Study: The study aims to develop leaf protein concentrates (LPC) from wild palak (Rumex dentatus) and bicchu ghas (Urtica diocia) and develop value-added products that may add to the nutritional security of the region.

Place and Duration of Study: The present research was undertaken in the College of Forestry & Hill Agriculture; G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Hill Campus Ranichauri, District-Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand (INDIA) in the year 2012-13.

Methodology: Rumex dentatus and U. diocia were analysed in triplicate for proximate composition such as percent moisture, crude protein, total ash, crude fat and crude fibre. The anti-nutritional substances such as phytic acid and oxalic acid were also analysed. The protein concentrates were prepared using the leaf concentrate extraction technique. The amount of pure protein present in both the leaf samples as well as the LPCs was calculated. Sensory evaluation of products made from 10% and 20% protein concentrate of R. dentatus and U. diocia leaves was also done.

Results: The results showed that the protein content of fresh Urticadiocia leaves was 6% and Rumex dentatus was 4%. After protein extraction, the levels increased to 15.34% and 14.21 % respectively. Mathri with 20 percent Rumex dentatus protein extract does not have acceptable colour. Of the other concentrates, Mathri with 10 percent Urtica diocia leaf protein extract appears to have the highest potential for acceptance on the basis of sensory evaluation and therefore may be considered for large-scale production and commercialisation thus adding to the nutrition security of the region.

Conclusion: The study concludes that R. dentatus and U. dioica which grow abundantly in the wild hilly region can be used for making different snack items. Both are rich in protein, therefore, can be used to fight protein deficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

HIV Spread Mathematical Model for Simulation of UNAIDS Goal to End AIDS in Sudan

Isack E. Kibona, Mojeeb AL-Rahman EL-Nor Osman, Cuihong Yang

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/43277

The present study highlights, HIV spread mathematical model which backing up UNAIDS goal to end AIDS in Sudan. We report our investigation, in mathematical modelling perspective about HIV spread, and suggest some possible measures in order to control the epidemic. UNAIDS goal includes a 90-90-90 target, by 2020, [90% of all people living with HIV (PLHIV) know their status, 90% whose status are known are expected to be under ART, and 90% of PLHIV under ART have viral load suppressed.] Another goal extends the mission to year 2030 in which UNAID aim to end AIDS.  According to UNAIDS, by 2030 UNAIDS want to minimize to at least 90% of both new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths compared to year 2010. In this article, achievement of the goal is possible with appropriate control of the basic reproduction number (R0). When R0 < 1, rate of new HIV infections decreases toward stabilizing disease free equilibrium (DFE).  In contrast, when R0 > 1 the endemic equilibrium stabilizes. We took Sudan as an example in the simulation. According to the model, PLHIV records from 2012 to 2016 in Sudan estimated R0 =1.5012. HIV spread had been growing since 2012. Although all values of R0<1 would lead to stabilize DFE, Although for achieving UNAIDS goal, any  R ≤ 0.0620 after 2016 onward is a better estimate to meet UNAIDS goal to end AIDS by 2030 in Sudan.

Open Access Review Article

Deliberations for Designing Theme Based Interiors - A Strategy to Increase the Consumers Interest and Demand for Handloom Products

M. Milcah Paul, P. Radha Rani

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/43674

The field of Interior Design is an ever expanding one. Everyday a new trend comes in. The designers and marketers are trying to attract the consumers with different products related to Interior Decoration. The Interior decoration products consists of different products like furnishings, accessories, furniture, lighting and other fixtures; both functional and decorative. ‘Sustainable’ or ‘Green’ Products/ Interiors are one of the trends seen in the present days, with regard to Interior Decoration. One of the ideas to bring in ‘Sustainability’ or ‘Green’ feature into the interior spaces is through the use of Handloom products. An innovative approach of using these handloom products in Interior Decoration is by using or designing them in a ‘Theme Based Approach’, rather than individual products. For designing the Theme Based Interior Design Products and Interiors, some deliberations are required to get a good output. This paper tries to understand the deliberations for designing theme based interiors. And if this theme based designing approach is done with handloom products in an innovative way, it can increase the consumer's interest and demand for handloom products and also incorporate ‘Sustainability' or ‘Green’ feature in the interior or living spaces.