Open Access Original Research Article

3- Point Single Hybrid Block Method (3PSHBM) for Direct Solution of General Second Order Initial Value Problem of Ordinary Differential Equations

Ezekiel Olaoluwa Omole, Bamikole Gbenga Ogunware

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/19862

In this research article, a Three Point Single Hybrid Block Method for Direct solution of general second order ordinary differential equations is considered. The method was derived by collocation and interpolation of power series approximation to generate a continuous linear multistep method. The resultant method was evaluated at selected grid and off grid points to generate a discrete block method. The basic properties of the method such as order, error constant, zero Stability and consistency are investigated. The new method was tested on some numerical examples which ranges from linear, non-linear and real life problem of initial value problems and was found to be more efficient and give better approximation than the existing methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Quality Assessment of Ruvu River in Tanzania Using NSFWQI

Stephano M. Alphayo, M. P. Sharma

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/44324

The assessment of rivers by using different water quality indices like NSFWQI is very useful. However, Tanzania has not yet utilised these tools to assess the quality of its rivers. This paper attempts to assess the water quality of the Ruvu River by using NSFWQI. Physical, chemical and biological parameters like Temperature, pH, Turbidity, Total Solids (TS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Phosphates (PO43-), Nitrates (NO3-) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) collected from 14 sampling points in three years were used to assess NSFWQI. The results showed that overall NSFWQI score was 49.9, 52.0 and 57.8 for the year 2014, 2016 and 2017 respectively. The overall NSFWQI (51-70) is found as 53.2 indicating that water quality of river in study stretch is in the medium range. BOD, DO and FC was found to be most stressing parameters overall sampling locations due to improper sanitation systems, discharge of untreated and partially treated wastewaters from industries and domestic into the river. Watershed management and pre-treatment of wastewaters from Industries and domestic were recommended to improve the water quality of the river.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trend Analysis of Temperature in Gombe State Using Mann Kendall Trend Test

U. U. Alhaji , A. S. Yusuf , C. O. Edet , Celestine O. Oche , E. P. Agbo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/42029

This paper presents the trend analysis of temperature in Gombe State using Mann-Kendall trend test. The annual average of Maximum and Minimum Temperature data was obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Gombe State. In order to determine the nature of the trend and significance level, Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen’s estimate were employed. From this study, it was found out that Maximum and Average temperature exhibit positive Kendall’s Z value which indicates an upward trend and also imply increasing trend over time. The Test statistic (Zs) for maximum and average temperatures are 4.38 and 4.43 respectively. This indicates that there is a significant increase in the trend at 5% level of significance since (p-values (0.0001) <0.05). However, the Z value for minimum temperature (1.59) shows a positive trend but not significant at 5% significant level since the p-value is greater than the significant level (p-value (0.107)>0.05). It can be inferred from both Mann- Kendall and Sen’s Slope that there is the tendency of increment in temperature. This could be due to the impact of climate change and can lead to weather extremes in the study area. It is therefore recommended that the variability of temperature should be monitored in order to minimize its effects on human activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Haplotype Analyses in Tilapia Fish Inferred from mtDNA D-loop and Cyt-b Regions

E. V. Ikpeme , O. U. Udensi , E. E. Ekerette , M. O. Ozoje

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/42950

Objective: This research was aimed at analysing single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes on D-loop and Cyt-b regions of the mitochondrial DNA of tilapia fish.

Methods: Fifteen and thirteen tilapia fish were obtained from two populations, south-south (Domita farm) and south-west (Odeda farm). DNA extraction from fish tissue was done using Quick-gDNATM mini Prep kit after which PCR amplification was carried out. Sequencing of the two mtDNA regions were done using forward primer 5’- GGATTYTAACCCYTRCCCC- 3’ and reverse 3’-AGTAAGTCAGGACCAAGCC-5’ for D-loop and 5’-GGATTTTAACCCTTACCCC-3’ and 3’-AGTAAAGTCAGGACCAAGCC-5’ for Cyt-b region. Statistical analyses were carried out on the aligned sequenced data using MEGA version 6.06, Dnasp 5.1, Codon code aligner 6.06 as well as NETWORK 4.6.1.1.

Results: mtDNA polymorphism was highest in the D-loop of South-South (SS) population with 176 polymorphic sites, while South-West (SW) population had 162 polymorphic sites translating to 176, 162 and 144 SNPs with higher non-synonymous substitutions than synonymous substitutions.  Haplotype diversities (Hd) were 1.00 ± 0.024 and 1.00 ± 0.030 while nucleotide diversities were 0.168 ± 0.086 and 0.161 ± 0.084 for D-loop of SS and SW populations, respectively. For Cyt b region, haplotype and nucleotide diversities were 0.91 ± 0.003 and 0.051 ± 0.016. Positive selection was more on mtDNA D-loop of tilapia sampled from SS than those from the SW as well as Cyt-b region of tilapia fish from SS. 28 haplotypes were identified among the tilapia from SS and SW with no shared haplotypes while 9 haplotypes were identified from the Cyt-b region with haplotypes 4, 5, 6 and 7 shared between species. Median-joining network analysis revealed population-based clustering pattern. The demographic expansion was not significant using Tajima's D and Fu's F statistics. 

Conclusion: Higher SNPs were revealed in mtDNA D-loop when compared with mtDNA Cyt-b region of tilapia fish.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mathematical Model for Malaria Transmission with Optimal Control Strategies and Their Effects

Mojeeb AL-Rahman EL-Nor Osman, Appiagyei Ebenezer , Isack E. Kibona

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/44293

In this paper, we propose a SEIR-SEI optimal control model of malaria transmission with standard incidence rate. We present four control strategies to prevent the prevalence of infection in the society. In order to do this, we introduce an optimal control problem with an objective function, where the four control functions, prevention using Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated Net(LLITN) u1(t), the control effort on malaria treatment of infected individuals u2(t), the insecticide spray on the breeding grounds for the mosquito u3(t), the prevention using Indoor Residual Spraying u4(t); have been used as control measures for exposed and infected individuals. We show the existence of an optimal control pair for the optimal control problem and derive the optimality conditions. Our numerical simulation suggests that the two controls strategies u1(t)and u2(t) are more effective than the other control strategies in controlling (reducing) the number of exposed and infected individuals and also in increasing the number of recovered individuals.