This paper was aimed at providing information on the levels of minerals in Abelmoschus esculentus(L.) Moench (Okra) grown in Fadaman Kubanni Farms and associated soils, the results were compared with those of the control site (rafin Yashi). The study was design to assess the levels of metals in the Abelmososchus esculentus vegetative parts and fruit samples of Fadaman Kubanni and Rafin Yashi. The study was conducted between June 2011 and May, 2013 in the Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. The standard methods were used for the determination of phosphorous and metal contents. The results were expressed as mean ± SD of five replicate determinations. The level of significance differences were determined at p ≤ 0.05. The mean concentration ranges of 213.19± 2.41(FP) to 4456.36 ± 3.41(CP), 94.80 ± 12.07(FF) to 3338.65 ± 6.33 (FS), 153.00 ± 32.99 (CS) to 356.00 ± 0.66 (FS), 30.35 ± 8.33 (FS) to 227.00 ± 24.19 (FP), 39.17 ± 15.92 (FS) to 4419.36 ± 22.56 (FP) and 19.50 ± 0.01 (CS) to 2241.66 ± 92.04 mg/100g (FF) were recorded for Ca, Fe, K, Na, Mg and P, respectively. The concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mg were appreciable in the analysed samples, thus it could be used as an alternative source of these elements in the body system to alleviate malnutrition, especially, among the socially economic lower classes of the population in the 3rd world country, such as Nigeria.
In this paper, the critical poses of PPS-RRS-PRS Hybrid Parallel Robot Manipulators (HPRMs) are geometrically investigated in Double Algebra (DA) approach. The screw theory and a reciprocal screw of dyad joints borrowed from the projective space to obtain the geometrically symbolic form of the inverse of the Jacobian matrix (J) which is expressed in the Global Wrench System (GWS) term called superbrackets. These superbrackets mean the symbolic form of the joints screw lines which are the Plücker coordinate finite lines or lines at infinity related to the Hybrid Parallel Robot Manipulators (HPRMs). The critical configurations arise when these Plücker coordinate lines vectors become linearly dependent at the vanished points of the superbrackets. The results of the investigation are the following: the four planes defined by the position of the joints intersected at last at one point which means that the fourth plane passes through the point defined by the other three. Both the base frame and mobile platform lie in a parallel plan. The key contribution in this paper is a determination of singularity condition of Robots Manipulators and rigidity framework without algebraic calculus by Grassmann-Cayley Algebra approach. This paper calculated the determinant of the Jacobian Matrices in a coordinate- free manner by developing and reducing the Superbracket expression. A novelty of this research from other research is that the Hybrid Parallel Robot with no identical leg was cheeked and investigated by Grassmann-Cayley Algebra. Not only fully parallel robot may be studied using Double Algebra, but no-identical legs hybrid parallel robot should be also analysed using Double Algebra.
The risk of microbiological and physicochemical contamination of rainwater especially during collection and storage has long been a persistent challenge. This study was carried out to assess the quality of rainwater used within communities in Calabar. Rainwater samples were aseptically collected from three locations within Calabar; Atimbo, Etta Agbo and Calabar South, the samples were analysed for total heterotrophic bacterial (THB), total fungi (TF), and total coliform (TC). The average total heterotrophic bacterial counts were 1.22x106cfu/ml for samples from Atimbo, 1.01x106cfu/ml in samples from Calabar South and 1.56x106cfu/ml in the samples from Etta Agbo. The total fungal counts produced insignificant results in the three samples analysed. The highest total coliform count was obtained in rainwater harvested from Calabar South (2.05x106cfu/ml), followed by Etta Agbo (1.92x106cfu/ml) while Atimbo had the lowest count of 1.66x106cfu/ml. The physicochemical characteristics of the three samples analysed indicate that the rain water was physically not suitable for drinking and other domestic and industrial use, but chemically fit for adequate utilisation.
Aims: Air pollution is responsible for numerous discomforts and health problems in humans, and it can be observed in large urban centres and small towns. The present study aimed to evaluate the perception of odours by residents of the municipality of Toledo, located in Paraná State, South region of Brazil.
Study Design: The study was based on a questionnaire and a perception of the residents.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the city of Toledo/PR/Brazil and all the procedures were realised in two months.
Methodology: To achieve the objectives, the municipality of Toledo was divided into four quadrants that housed 20 potential sources of odour emission. In each of the quadrants, 25 residents were randomly interviewed using pre-established questionnaires.
Results: From the answers given by the residents and after the tabulation of the results, it was verified that the presence of odours in the municipality was verified by 87% of the interviewees. Among whom they stated that the odours are responsible for some type of physical discomfort (43% of appetite due to odours) and even psychological (44% stated that odours present in the municipality cause stress). Through the interviews it was possible to confirm some sources of possible odour emission, however, there is a need for further studies and monitoring of the air quality in the municipality so that the emitting sources will be identified.
Conclusion: The residents of all quadrants studied in Toledo city observed odours in the city; also, they evidence the problems that are caused by them, what needs some concern of the municipal government. During the research, it was identified the need for further studies on this topic considering that it is a poorly studied area and that there is a need for regulations and methodologies to assist in the identification of pollutant sources.
Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis and associated predisposing risk factors in a rural setting of Cameroon.
Methodology: The survey took place from April to July 2014 at the District Medical Center of Balessing, the District Medical Center of Bansoa chefferie, the District Medical Center of Eglise Evangelique du Cameroun and the District Hopital of Penka-Michel, 4 reference hospitals in Penka-Michel, a sub-division in the west region of Cameroon.Serum samples were collected from 643 pregnant women attending the ante natal clinic after obtaining informed consent. Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies were detected by indirect solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA), immunoComb® Toxo lgG. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic parameters and predisposing risk factors for toxoplamosis from each patient. The data were analyzed using GraphPad prism version 5.03.
Results: The age range of the women was 15-50 years with a mean of 27.1 ± 2.51 years. The mean gestational age was 6.22 ±1.93 months with, 9.8%, 39.5% and 50.7% of the women in the first, second and third trimester respectively. The overall IgG seroprevalence was 35.77% (230/643) of our sample population. There was a statistically significant association between Toxo IgG seropositivity status, educational level, professional status, had knowledge on toxoplamosis and frequency of raw meat consumption with a significantly higher risk of being seropositive amongst farmers and housewives (X2 =13.28; P = .0100), among women with university level of education (X2 =11.77; P = .0082), among women with knowledge on toxoplamosis (P = .0001) and those who frequently consume raw meat (P = .0426).
Conclusion: Our data found out a high risk of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, and a general screening program for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Cameroon should be done.