Open Access Original Research Article

Nigerian Survivability, Sustainabily and Reliability by 2030

K. O. Kadiri, Oluwafemi Samuel Tosin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/24613

Nigeria had choose to embark on various reforms, policies, visions and strategic development programmes and plans, all channeled towards achieving a developed country. Seven point agenda in recent years and a considerable numbers of expeditions. Our government had conceived the vision 2020, which is aimed at giving Nigerian a chance to be one of the first 20 countries in global economics by 2020 and beyond.

This study used the critical research method to compare and analyze development indicators for Nigerian alongside the advanced countries, which Nigeria aspire to join.

On the contrary, the situation in high-income nations, a large number of Nigerians are having accommodation problems, feeding problem, some are uneducated, lacked the ability to behold clothing material, poor housing, sojourn in rural areas, undermined with massive underdevelopment. Abject poverty contributes to the lesser development of a country.

Nigeria’s vision can’t be said to be too forward or ambitious, if practical steps and pragmatic programs beside thorough supervision are put in place, stepping out of its lack of good leadership, poor management of resources and financial misappropriation. 

Recommendations include; reduction in overdependence in one means of generating income, commitment and restructuring of leadership to sufficient disciple via political will to enforce programmes which are realistic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Responses of Oreochromis niloticus Exposed to Sub-lethal Concentrations of Industrial Effluent from Agbara Environs of Ologe lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria

Akintade Adeboyejo, Oyedapo Fagbenro, Yemisi Adeparusi, Edwin Clarke, Roseline Adaramoye

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/6313

Aims:   The present study is on the toxicity of sub-lethal concentrations of industrial effluents (IE) on the growth responses of Oreochromis niloticus (fingerlings and juveniles) from the Agbara environs of Ologe Lagoon, Lagos state, Nigeria.

Study Design: The culture system was a static renewable bioassay and was carried out in the fisheries laboratory of the Lagos State University, Ojo-Lagos, Nigeria. The fish were cultured in varying concentrations of industrial effluents: 0% (control), 5%, 15%, 25%, and 35%. Trials were carried out in triplicates for twelve (12) weeks.  

Methodology: Weekly physico-chemical parameters: temperature (0C), pH, conductivity (ms/cm) and dissolved oxygen (DO in mg/l) were measured in each treatment tank. Length (cm) and weight (g) data were obtained and used to calculate various growth parameters: mean weight gain (MWG), percentage weight gain (PWG), daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival.

Results: The physico-chemical parameters showed that the pH of the culture water for O. niloticus fingerlings ranged from 7.57 – 7.97 and 7.86 – 7.97 for juveniles. DO results ranged from 2.89 - 4.72 mg/l for fingerlings and 4.54 - 7.68mg/l for juveniles. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the DO values among the culture water. The DO values decreased with increase in effluent concentration for all treatments. The mean conductivity values obtained ranged from 0.51 – 0.53 ms/cm and 0.35 – 0.42 ms/cm for fingerlings and juveniles respectively. The temperature was stable throughout the study period; it ranged from 27.9 – 28.120C and 23.94 – 27.140C respectively. There was progressive increase in length and weight of fish during the culture period.  The fish placed in the control had the highest increase in both weight and length, while fish in 35% had the least. MWG ranged from 5.15 – 8.8 and 4.48 – 15.2, DWG is from 0.14 – 0.19 and 0.52 – 0.64, PWG varied from 42.53 – 54.17 and 10.36 – 28.38, SGR ranged from 0.69 – 0.93 and 0.13 – 0.39 for fingerlings and juveniles respectively.

Conclusion: This study had shown that the industrial effluents from study site affected the health status of the test organisms, the water quality parameters (especially oxygen content), and impaired the growth of both the fingerlings and juveniles of O. niloticus when exposure continued for a long period of time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Environmental Effects of Flooding in Makurdi Area of Benue State, Nigeria

Muhammad Isma’il, Atu John Kersha

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/9848

Makurdi town of northcentral Nigeria is drained by River Benue, River Katsina-Ala and the smaller tributaries of the Cross River. The people of the town depend on the land and water resources for sustenance. However, a large portion of the area is flooded annually leading to loss of life and destruction of properties. This study assessed the environmental effects of flooding in the area with a view to identify the causes of flood and areas that are vulnerable to flood, for proper flood disaster preparation and mitigation in the future. The study used questionnaire survey to acquire primary data. The questionnaires were administered randomly to the residents and purposively to government/environment officials in the area. The information obtained through the questionnaire included causes and severity of flood in the area, environmental effects and control measures of flood. In addition, secondary data was obtained from the Ministry of Water Resources and Environment, population report from the National Population Commission, report of registered voters in the study area from the State Independent Electoral Commission. Findings revealed that although physical factors influence flooding in the town, anthropogenic factors are also very influential in the severity of flood in the area. The environmental effects of flood include destruction of houses and displacement of people, disruption of livelihood of the people in the flood prone areas, pollution of domestic water supply causing health problems to the people in the area.This paper recommended strategies to check flooding in Makurdi, which requires a combination of engineering and spatial planning measures; as well as a synergy among all stakeholders for proper flood management in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Phytochemical and Proximate Properties of the Extract of Unripe Annona muricata (Linn.) Fruit

Olajide Sunday Faleye, Ebenezer Oluyemi Dada

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/21584

Aims: Study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical and proximate properties of unripe A. muricata fruit extract.

Place and Duration of Study: It was carried out at the Federal University of Technology, Akure Central Laboratory between June 2014 - August 2014.

Methodology: Matured unripe fruits of A. muricata were collected, washed, dried, powdered and extracted using 70% ethanol. After which the proximate and phytochemical properties were determined using standard methods.

Results: The result of the qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponin, tannin, terpernoid, flavonoid, anthraquinone and cardiac glycoside but alkaloid and phlobatanin were absent while the quantitative screening showed that cardiac glycoside (27.19 mg/g) was the highest occurring phytochemical in the extract followed by terpenoid (19.31mg/g), tannin (13.12 mg/g), flavonoids (9.09mg/g), saponin (4.63 mg/g), and anthraquinone (1.12 mg/g). Meanwhile, the results of the proximate composition (%) of unripe A. muricata fruit extract showed that carbohydrate was the highest occurring nutrient with 48.7, followed by moisture content (24.51), fat (17.13), crude protein (9.09) and ash (0.58). However, crude fibre was not detected.

Conclusion: The results of this present study indicate that Annona muricata fruit extract is potentially useful in phytomedicine and also provide information on the nutritive importance to body health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Theories of Learning and Evaluation Processes for the Social Communication

Dra. Rosane da Conceição Pereira

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/25586

Objective: To prove that a previous knowledge can be the basis of the student's education, but the teacher is critical in significant overhaul for the life of both the Social Communication education. Study Design:Comparative discourse analysis of learning theories with examples in the Social Communication area.

Methodology: Pêcheux’s Discourse Analysis and Theories in the Process of Learning and Evaluation in question.

Results: It is considered that the ability to learn stems from the experience so much the motivation as the innatism, as from the scientific knowledge by Intellect as constructivism, not being the two mutually exclusive theories, but interdiscourses of the Learning Process through discursive practice a class performing a previous knowledge.

Conclusion: The ability to learn is so developed in the actions of the student by contact (cre)active with the knowledge, which is always facilitated by the teacher, whatever the verbal and nonverbal speech to be theorized and put into use.