Open Access Original Research Article

Remediation of Cassava Effluent Contaminated Soil Using Organic Soap Solution: Case Study of Soil Physical Properties and Plant Growth Performance

O. I. Akpokodje, H. Uguru, D. Esegbuyota

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/45048

The remediation of cassava effluent contaminated soil, using organic soap solution was evaluated, in this research. Soil parameters and bean growth performance investigated were moisture content, pH, temperature, germination rate, leaf colour, number of leaves and seedling height. The research was carried out in natural environmental condition, with the research divided into two units, namely; Control Unit (CU) and Amendment Unit (AU). Under the AU, the cassava effluent contaminated soil was treated with organic soap solution; while under the CU, the contaminated soil was left untreated. From the results obtained, the organic soil solution was observed to improve the soil physical properties and bean growth performance. The results showed that there was appreciable level of degradation of the cassava effluent in the soil, arising from organic soap solution. The soil pH, temperature and moisture content in the CU were significantly better than in the AU. In terms of bean growth performance, the bean seeds planted in the AU performed better than those planted in the CU. Iron bean was found to be lesser tolerant to the effluent to the butter bean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Establishing the Conditions of Formation of Ishiagu Galena-Sphalerite Mineralisation, Southeastern Nigeria Using Stable Isotope

Okeke, Adaobi Isabella, Anike, Luke Okechukwu, Ezeh, Hilary, Okoyeh, Elizabeth Ifeyinwa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/44883

The study area is located at southwestern extreme of the Benue Trough of Nigeria. The area is bounded by latitude N50 57’0’’ - N50 54’0’’ and longitude E70 32’ 0’’- N50 54’0’’. The Ishiagu galena-sphalerite deposit occurs in the Cretaceous (Albian) carbonaceous shale intruded by basic to ultrabasic igneous rocks. Tectonic events of the Santonian Era led to the folding, fracturing and faulting of the rocks of the Ishiagu area. The study tends to establish the conditions of formation of the hydrothermal deposits of Ishiagu.  Establishing the conditions of formation of a deposit is a key to understanding the genesis of the deposit for its proper characterisation. Apart from galena and sphalerite, the ore is composed of chalcopyrite with siderite, quartz and calcite as gangue minerals. Stable isotope of three ore bodies were studied in the area. The δ34S of galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite range from -5.00/00 to -8.00/00, -2.00/00 to -4.90/00 and -5.50/00 respectively. Siderite samples have δ18O (PDB) and δ13C(PDB) values ranging from -10.01 0/00 to -9.50/00 and -1.930/00 to -1.380/00 respectively. The negative values of the δ34S and δ13C indicates the abundance of reduced sulfur (H2S) and carbon (CH4) respectively in the ore fluid and invariably the reduced nature of the hydrothermal system during the formation of the deposit. The range of negative δ34S and δ13C values of the deposit hosted by the intrusive which is -4.50/00 to -8.00/00 and -1.930/00 to -1.650/00 respectively and that of the shale host which is : -2.00/00 to -6.10/00 and -1.470/00 to -1.380/00 respectively reveal the more reduced condition of formation of the deposit hosted by the intrusive, the  close nature  of the geochemical environment  and also  the effect of the host rocks on the sulfur isotope compositional ratios.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farm Household Vulnerability to Climate Change and Its Determinants: The Case of Ada’a Berga District of West Shewa, Ethiopia

Daniel Assefa Tofu, Deressa Gadisa Dedefa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/41583

The main objective of this study was to analyse the vulnerability of households to the impacts of climate change and factors that influence houses to be vulnerable in Ada’a Berga districts of western Shewa zone. To achieve the objective, study area and sample households' were selected by using multi-stage sampling procedure. Descriptive statistical analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Ordinal Logit Model were applied to a set of primary data collected from 421 randomly sampled farmers with the aid of semi-structured questionnaire in six purposively selected kebeles’. The analytical results of descriptive statistics indicates that households that are headed with above 65 years of age, illiterate, less experienced in farming, with more number of  dependent family members, and tenants who are not frequently visited with extension workers, lack of access to climate information, depend only on rain fed farming, no own land, no access to credit at all, no other option of income, no market in their nearby, private infertile land, experienced increase in temperature and change in the pattern of rainfall were vulnerable in the community. Besides, based on the vulnerability index results of PCA, households of the study area were categorised into three (42%, 38% & 20%) moderately vulnerable, highly vulnerable and less vulnerable to their own percent. Empirical result of Ordinal Logit Model showed that vulnerability of a household  was determined by several explanatory variables, i.e., social, economic and biophysical. Therefore, policy measures and development efforts are focused towards improving the adaptive capacity of the farm households, while working to reduce those factors, i.e., both biophysical and socio-economic that significantly contributes to the exposure and sensitivity of the houses in the locality. The most vulnerable families should be the primary target of any future interventions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Heavy Metals In Spent Synthetic-Based Drilling Mud Using Nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI)

Obinduka Felix, Ify L. Nwaogazie, Onyewuchi Akaranta, Gideon O. Abu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/45675

Management of waste generated from oil and gas activities in the Niger Delta, is a major environmental challenge given that if the spent mud is disposed without proper treatment, the heavy metals will pose a lot of health risks to human through ingestion or inhalation. The heavy metals are also toxic to marine organisms, if disposed into the sea, untreated. Spent synthetic drilling mud is a major waste stream, among its components, are heavy metals. Samples collected on day 0 and biweekly were digested and analysed using the atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). With nano Zero-Valent Iron, nZVI, concentration of 0.75mg/L of the spent mud, more than 95% removal were recorded for most metals in 6 weeks and over 99% in 12 weeks. The residual heavy metal concentrations met global limits for effluent disposal. Mathematical models with the goodness of fit, R2 of 0.999, were developed to predict the removal process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mitigating Effect of Honey on Caffeine Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats

U. U. Uno, A. J. Umoyen, U. B. Ekaluo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/44014

Aim: The study was aimed at determining the mitigating effect of honey on oxidative stress induced by caffeine using oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, Glutathione and malondialdehyde, in male albino rats.

Study Design: A completely randomized design (CRD) was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar and lasted for 65 days.

Methodology: Thirty healthy male albino rats of 12 weeks old were randomly divided into five groups of six rats each. The experimental animals were treated with combinations of caffeine and honey using oral gavage. Group 1 served as the control and was given only water and feed; Group 2 were treated with 10 ml/kgBW of honey (honey group); Group 3 were treated with 200 mg/kgBW of caffeine (caffeine group); Group 4 were treated with 200 mg/kgBW of caffeine and 10 ml/kgBW of honey (C + H1 group) while Group 5 were treated with 20 ml/kgBW of honey and 200 mg/kgBW of caffeine (C + H2).

Results: Results indicated a significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione observed in caffeine treated rats in comparison with the control. Also, a significant increase in the serum concentration of malondialdehyde in caffeine treated rats was observed. Effectively, honey mitigated caffeine induced effect on the oxidative stress markers in albino rat models and the effect was dose dependent.

Conclusion: The findings of this study provide evidence that honey has the potential to mitigate the effect of caffeine on oxidative stress markers in male albino rat models in a dose dependent manner.