Open Access Original Research Article

Amply Essential Supplemented Modules

Celil Nebiyev, Hasan Hüseyin Ökten, Ayten Pekin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/45651

In this work, amply essential supplemented modules are defined and some properties of these modules are investigated. We prove that every π−projective and essential supplemented module is amply essential supplemented. We also prove that every factor module and every homomorphic image of an amply essential supplemented module are amply essential supplemented. Let M be a projective and essential supplemented R−module. Then every finitely M−generated R−module is amply essential supplemented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal and Microbiological Characteristics of Wastewater Impacted by Anthropogenic Activities around Ntanwogba Creek in Port Harcourt City

David N. Ogbonna, John O. Ogbuku

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/45950

Ntanwogba creek is associated with beehive of anthropogenic activities such as mechanics and workshops, welders, sale of various household materials/accessories, motor parts, washing of cars and so many other sources of income for families living around the area in Port Harcourt. This study also investigates the impact of these human activities and its negative impact on the open drainage system along the Ntanwogba creek and the environment. Wastewater and sediment samples were collected at five different sampling points designated along the Ntanwogba creek with sterile containers using standard microbiological methods. Sampling was done by plunging about 30 cm below the water surface with the mouth of the sample container positioned in an opposite direction to water flow. The sediment samples were collected with plastic scooper to scoop the samples. The samples were labelled and transported in a cooler packed with ice blocks to the laboratory for analysis. This exercise was repeated at all the sampling stations starting from the upstream by Afam /Kaduna Street behind the Winners Chapel in D-Line to the downstream at Abacha Road off the Agip roundabout. Standard analytical protocols were employed to determine the heavy metal and  microbiological characteristics of the wastewaters and sediments for a period of one year.Results obtained from the study showed that the bacterial isolates were identified as Vibrio cholerae, Shigella sp, E.coli, Vibrio parahaemoliticus, Salmonella sp, Bacillus sp, Klebsiella sp, Actinomycetes, Serratia sp, Listeria sp, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas sp while the fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus, Mucor sp and Candida sp. The cumulative percentage distribution of bacterial isolates across the sampling stations revealed that E. coli had the highest with 15.22%, Vibrio cholerae 13.69%, Pseudomonas 12.43%, Klebsiella 11.31% and Shigella 10.61%. Total heterotrophic count showed that bacteria was more than the fungi in both sediment and wastewater samples. Results of heavy metal analyses revealed that the mean values for all the metals determined were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the sediments than in the wastewater samples. Metals like Cadmium (Cd), Vanadium (V), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni) and Copper (Cu) concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the sediments than in the wastewater samples across sampling stations. Cd had 1.25 ppm, Cu 18.30 ppm, Ni 5.26 ppm, Pb 58.12 ppm, and Zn 57.28 ppm thus suggesting impairment of the water quality in the Ntanwogba creek and the alteration of the ecological dynamics of the receiving water bodies. Pollution of water resources by human activities might lead to destruction of primary producers and this in turn leads to diminishing consumer populations in water resources. The consequences of such anthropogenic pollution can also lead to the transmission of diseases by water borne pathogens. Consequently this may cause changes in environmental conditions in such ecosystems due to their toxicity and biomagnification attributes of metals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vitamins and Minerals Composition of Eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon) and ‘Ukazi’ (Gnetum africanum) Leaves as Affected by Boiling and Steaming

Gloria Ifeoma Davidson, Amarachukwu Genevieve Monulu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/45255

Aims: In relation to nutrient retention, cooking method is not a major factor considered when preparing vegetables at household level. The study evaluated the vitamin and mineral compositions of raw, boiled and steamed egg plant (Solanum macrocarpon) and ‘ukazi’ (Gnetum africanum) leaves.

Methodology: Freshly purchased vegetables were washed and divided into three portions. The first was pulverised raw while the second and third were pulverised after boiling and steaming, respectively. Their micro nutrients profiles were chemically determined using standard procedures. Data obtained was statistically analysed using Statistical Product for Service Solution (SPSS) version 21.0 for descriptive statistics such as means and standard deviation. Significance was accepted at p ≤ 0.05.

Results: Micro nutrients content of eggplant were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in the raw than the steamed and boiled samples. However, no significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference was observed in the vitamin B1 content of boiled (0.19 mg/100 g) and steamed (0.16 mg/100 g) samples. Except for vitamin B6, all the B-vitamins values of the raw and steamed ‘ukazi’ leaves were statistically similar. There was no significant difference in the beta carotene values of raw (587 mg/100 g), boiled (549 mg/100 g) and steamed (574 mg/100 g) samples. Mineral values of the three ‘ukazi’ samples were all significantly different (p=.05) and ranged from 0.28-181 mg/100 g in the raw, to 0.10-161 mg/100 g and 0.26-180 mg/100 g in the boiled and steamed samples, respectively.

Conclusion: Steaming had better micro nutrient retention than boiling. Boiling and steaming the vegetables whole (without slicing) also enhanced their nutrient retention. To improve on the intake of micro nutrients, steaming whole vegetables rather than boiling them should be advocated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination of Hand Washing Tools in Restaurants in Lebanon

Christelle Bachi Gedeon, Elie Bou Yazbeck

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/45765

Aims: This study aims to determine the extent of bacterial contamination of various hand hygiene tools as well as to isolate and identify the diversity of bacteria, mold and yeast present in these commercial products. The possible contamination of these utensils due to the environment encountering them is also being investigated.

Study Design:  First a literature search was conducted with the aim of finding the hand hygiene tools that are frequently contaminated and the most frequent bacteria that contaminate it. Then restaurants were visited for an observational study and for the collection of samples for microbiological testing.

Place and Duration of Study: Study enrollment was voluntary and limited to the restaurants located in the Maten region-Lebanon, between September 2012 and January 2013.

Methodology: Seven different restaurants participated in this study, from which we collected the following samples if they were found: Water samples (from the kitchen and the toilet), soap samples (from bulk and dispenser), paper towel samples (from the kitchen and the toilet) and hand disinfectant samples. Collected samples were tested for total coliforms, total bacterial count, fecal coliforms, yeast, and mold.

Results: None of the restaurants were able to meet all hygiene requirements and 7 over 7 restaurants were not able to meet more than 45% of the Food Code requirements for hand washing station. Almost all the restaurants had at least 2 contaminated samples and no restaurants had hand disinfectant. This study found that even if hand washing is carried out properly, hands could become contaminated at first by the pre-contaminated hand hygiene tools.

Conclusion: The assessment of the hand hygiene tools’ safety may be considered as complementary to the Food Code’s recommendations given that the safety of these products is as important as the hand hygiene itself. A scheduled microbiological test for all hand hygiene tools should also be planned at least once a year.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change Vulnerability in Dacope Upazila, Bangladesh

Md. Abdur Razzaque, Muhammed Alamgir, Md. Mujibor Rahman

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/45471

Aims: This study was aimed to assess the climate change vulnerability of Dacope upazila of Bangladesh and analyze the factor behind the vulnerability components. Additionally, it was intended to visualize the relative vulnerability of different unions in GIS environment.

Place of Study: Dacope Upazila of Khulna district comprising an area of 991.57 km2, bounded by Batiaghata upazila on the north, Pasur river on the south, Rampal and Mongla upazilas on the east, Paikgachha and Koyra upazilas on the west.

Methodology: Integrated assessment approach was used to determine the union level climate change vulnerability. 100 households from 9 unions of the study area were taken for survey. The vulnerability determined in this study was calculated from exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. All the parameters were weighted with highest factor loadings from Principal Component Analysis.

Results: From analysis of all the identified indicators the study found Banishanta (0.97), Kamarkhola (0.97) and Sutarkhali (1.13) highly vulnerable due to their low adaptive capacity (0.31 for all). On the contrary, lower level of vulnerability is found in Dacope (0.52) and Chalna (0.37) unions with relatively higher adaptive capacity (0.50 and 0.67). Adaptive capacity was found the most influential (correlation coefficient of -0.723) components of vulnerability.

Conclusion: Unions of Dacope upazila are mostly vulnerable due to their low adaptive capacity. The vulnerability situation is even worse in southern unions like Sutarkhali. The present study can be useful in addressing proper measures to increase adaptation and mitigation of climate change in SW coastal Bangladesh.