Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of the El-Niño Southern Oscillation Precipitation and the Surface Temperature over the Upper Blue Nile Region

Firew Molla, Abebe Kebede, U. Jaya Prakash Raju

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/45657

Precipitation is a climatic variable influenced by global weather parameter like, sea surface temperature from Pacific Ocean. Its effect in turn has an impact on crop production and other precipitation related results (add reference).  In this research work, we have studied the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on surface temperature and precipitation over selected regions of Upper Blue Nile. We applied Pearson correlation analysis on the precipitation and sea surface temperature above the parts of Upper Blue Nile with monthly Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) anomaly and from four ENSO regions over the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. We have found that the Niño 4 region is a better matching region for the selected location of the Upper Blue Nile out of the four ENSO regions in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Moreover, the Niño 4 region shows a negative correlation with precipitation and a positive correlation with temperature over Upper Blue Nile. Further evaluations of the relationships between precipitation and temperature with Niño 4 including the Atlantic oscillation, were conducted. Precipitation and temperature are partially correlated with Niño 4 and the Atlantic oscillation however, precipitation was limited to a few months. The seasonal dependence of precipitation and temperature on the strength of El Niño and La Niña events in the Niño 4 region were evaluated over the Upper Blue Nile. Results show   the temperature is maximum over the Upper Blue Nile region during the El Niño period and reverses for the La Niña events. Precipitation is reduced during the El Niño period and increases during the La Niña period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Lasso Regression to Model National Development Indicators and National Internet Usage

Yusuf Musa, Babalola Rotimi, Ogedebe Peter

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/31117

Aim: This paper aim to use Lasso Regression Model to ascertain how the level of development in a country affects the interest of a number of internet users.

Methodology: Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (Lasso) regression with the Least Angle Regression selection (LARs) algorithm with k=5-fold cross validation was used to estimate the lasso regression model used to ascertain the significant association between the number of internet user in a country and the development indicators for that country. The change in the cross validation average (mean) squared error at each step was used to identify the best subset of the predictor variables. The lasso regression model was estimated on a training data set consisting of observations from the year 2012 (N=199), and a test data set included the observations from the year 2013 (N=196).

Results: LASSO regression model was trained on N=199 countries and used to identify the best subset of predictors which predicted the response variables; Number of internet users in N=196 countries around the world for the year 2013. The Number of internet users for training and test sets per 100 people for the countries ranged from 1.06 to 96.2 and 1.30 to 96.55 respectively. This indicates that there is significant variation in the response variable.

Conclusion: It is possible that the few variable indicators we considered as strong predictors of internet are confounded by other factors not considered in the analysis. Therefore, it is recommended that future efforts should focus on other ways to fill in the missing observations since there are large number of national development indicators/factors that are associated with the number of internet users.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Pollution Threat of Boreholes Located Around an Abandoned Dumpsite in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Udeme Uyom Udofia, Akaninyene Paul Joseph, Finian Tobias Okoro

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/44886

Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the heavy metal and microbial contamination levels of ground water located in an abandoned municipal dumpsite in Uyo metropolis.

Study Design and Duration: The study was carried-out over a period of 3 months (September to November, 2017). Water samples were collected aseptically and preserved in an ice chest immediately after collection.

Methodology: Water samples were collected from 4 boreholes; 3 boreholes around the Uyo abandoned dumpsite and from 1 control borehole. The collected samples were analysed for Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg using Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer (AAS), while the microbial contents were analysed in microbiology laboratory according to the methods of Gerhardt.

Results: The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cr in the borehole water were 0.015 ± 0.011, 0.058 ± 0.067 and 0.083 ± 0.139 mg/L respectively. The Pb and Cd concentration varied significantly between the boreholes (p<0.05), while Cr varied insignificantly between the boreholes (p>0.05). The total coliform count (TCC) and yeast count (YC) varied significantly between the borehole (p<0.05), while total plate count (TPC) of bacteria varied insignificantly between the boreholes (p>0.05). Eschericha coli was not detected in the 4 borehole water samples, but TPC and TCC were observed in boreholes 2, 3, and 4. The TPC, TCC, E. coli, and YC in borehole 1 (control) were all within the Nigerian standard for drinking water quality (NSDWQ), and was deemed healthy for drinking. In general, borehole 2, 3, and 4 are unhealthy for consumption since majority of the microbial parameters and heavy metals studied were above the NSDWQ acceptable limit.

Conclusion: Despite recently moving the dumpsite far from residential areas, the boreholes around the abandoned dumpsite are still contaminated and unsafe for drinking. Thorough treatment and regular monitoring of the boreholes is recommended as a strategy, to prevent outbreak of water borne diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Curved-type Impeller Foundry Sand Mixer

B. A. Olunlade, B. O. Olaoye, C. A. Ikutegbe, K. J. Akinluwade

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/35652

This paper is concerned with design and modeling of a sand mixer with an arrangement of curved-type impeller, driven by a geared motor using the dynamic simulation environment in Autodesk® Inventor® 2015. The study highlights the high demand for foundry sand and need for efficient and cost effective designs. Furthermore, it describes the various types of foundry sand, their importance and objectives of sand mixers. The methodology employed involves the design of geometrical parameters of the cylindrical stirred tank, the torque exerted on the shaft of the gearbox of radial flow impellers and driving mechanism. A simulated torque of 206.861Nm was achieved and used to determine the actual power required by the electric motor and mixer efficiency to be 1.5HP and 64.45% respectively. The results showed that the design of highly efficient mixers to achieve homogeneous mix of foundry sand for assured mold can be accomplished using computational analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Implementation of a Tool for Website Usability Measurement

Emel Kuruoğlu Kandemir, Hilmi Bağ

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/46394

Aims: Today, access to information is mostly provided by using web pages. Web pages have quite a different design. Web design should be able to provide faster and more efficient access to information. This raises issues such as web usability, usability tests, human computer interaction, and user experience. The aim of this study is to develop a web-based tool for measuring the ‘usability’ of a website. The System Usability Scale (SUS) was used in the developed web-based tool for this measurement.

Study Design: In this study, a web based tool was developed by using System Usability Scale. The developed web-based tool has been implemented for two websites and the results have been interpreted.

Place and Duration of Study: Dokuz Eylül University Department of Computer Science between May 2018 and November 2018.

Methodology: In this study, we introduce a tool for the System Usability Scale. The  websites were evaluated by the students using the System Usability Scale tool. The performance of this scale was compared for the websites.

The number of participating students in this study for Website-1 and Website-2 is 19 (10 male, 9 female). SUS score data from the students were collected and analyzed in the database quickly and accurately with web-based software.

Results: Website-1 score according to the System Usability Scale was calculated  as 69.4 with our tool. It can be said that the website is a good system or a good website. The score of Website-2 is 58 and interpreted as poor website.

Conclusion: We have shown that two practical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and practicality of the usability tool.