Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Development of Fruit Washer

S. A. Adegbite, S. K. Adeyemi, A. O. Komolafe, M. O. Salami, C. F. Nwaeche, A. A. Ogunbiyi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/46041

It has been observed that washing of fruits are mostly done manually. This method involves a lot of drudgery which is inefficient and time consuming. Hence, there is a need to mechanize this process for ease of operation and maintenance of hygiene. An attempt has been made to develop a fruit washer which is conceptualized to wash a range of fruits based on roundness or spherical shape. These fruits are orange, mango, apple, pineapple pawpaw, cashew and passion fruits. The machine is designed with essential components being the feed hopper, roller brushes, stainless tank, top cover, water jet system, control valve, chain drive, bearings, main frame and discharge outlet. The machine has been developed with the locally available materials powered by 3hp electric motor. Test carried out on the machine successfully revealed that the washing efficiency and the machine capacity were 89.73% & 480.57 kg/h respectively for orange and 90.16% & 326.63 kg/h respectively for pineapple.

Open Access Original Research Article

Appraising of Air Conditional System Condensate Discharge Rate in Southwest, Nigeria

O. S. Bamisaye, P. K. Oke, U. A. Essien

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/45470

Aims: The aim of this research is to ascertain the condensate discharge rate from a split air conditional system with a view to channeling the condensate into a storage tank for other useful purposes.

Study Design: Quantitative study. Relevant data on condensate discharge rate was collected.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between 16th to the 22nd of November, 2015.

Methodology: The method used consists of data collection and readings such as outdoor dry bulb temperature, dew point temperatures, relative humidity, and condensate volume. It features the calculation of air conditioning load estimation, data analysis, and estimated cost of integrating condensate collection which is essential for the completion of this study.

Results: The study discovered that about three thousand four hundred and eighty-eight (3,488) litres of condensate are being wasted on a weekly basis within the School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, The Federal University of Technology, Akure. This figure indicates the amount of reclaimed water source that is not in use.

Conclusion: The condensate can/should be collected with the help of 2hp capacity pump and channeled through a pipe of diameter 32 mm into a 5000 litres capacity tank within the engineering building. The condensate can flow through the existing plumbing facilities and will serve to address a lot of water scarcities being experienced, most especially in many laboratories, toilets and by cleaners at School of Engineering and Engineering Technology Building. This will reduce the cost being spent per month on water supply by the faculty and would result to great annual savings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies of Physicochemical and Nutritive Properties of Oil Extracts from Local and Improved Varieties of Palm Fruits

Lessoy Zoué, Armel Zoro, Sébastien Niamké

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/46025

Palm tree (Elais guineensis) is a tropical plant cultivated as a major agricultural crop for palm oil production but debates related to palm oil’s potential unhealthy effects due are still ongoing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and nutritive properties of palm oil extracted from local and improved varieties. Fresh fruit bunches of palm oil from local and improved varieties were collected in traditional and industrial plantations of South East Côte d’Ivoire. The fruits were sorted and washed several time with distilled water, cooked at 100°C in distilled water for 30 min and milled in laboratory mortar. The cooked and milled mesocarps of palm fruits were used for three techniques of oil extraction: Soxhlet extraction (SH), decoction extraction (DW) and soaking extraction (SW). Physicochemical parameters were determined using Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) conventional methods. Fatty acids were quantified by using Gas Chromatography (GC) method. There was a significant difference (P ˂ 0.05) between oil contents from improved varieties (20.57 – 23.32%) and local ones (8.80 – 15.58%). Crude palm oil (CPO) samples extracted from local varieties may be considered as valuable sources of carotenoids (576.67 – 654.42 μg/g) and tocopherols (755.33 – 772 μg/g) for human nutrition requirements. They were predominantly composed of unsaturated fatty acids (52.21 – 54.34%) while CPO extracted from improved varieties was saturated fatty acids rich (50.97 – 54.17%). In CPO extracted from local varieties, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) were composed of oleic acid (43.85 – 45.72%) and a relatively low rate of linoleic acid (8.02 – 8.62%). Given that crude palm oil is a major ingredient of many dishes in Côte d’Ivoire, these results are a clear indication that the consumption of CPO extracted from local varieties may have beneficial health effect in nutritional point of view.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence and Antibiotic Profile of Some Enteric Bacteria in Retailed Sachet Water Sold in Oluponna, Osun State, Nigeria

Olayinka O. Elutade, Victory T. Emmanuel, Omowumi T. Akinola

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/46568

The research reports the occurrence and antibiogram pattern of the pathogenic organisms Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in retailed sachet water to assess their microbial quality and potential health impact on consumers. A total of 50 sachet water, consisting of three different brands, were bought from sale outlets in Oluponna, Osun State, Nigeria and screened on Salmonella-Shigella agar for Shigella spp.and Salmonella spp. and on Eosin-methylene agar for E. coli using the pour plating technique. Antibiotic sensitivity profile using 0.5 McFarland of each of the obtained isolate was carried out on Mueller Hinton agar using the disc diffusion method. Results showed that the percentage occurrence was E. coli (98%), Salmonella spp. (26%) and Shigella spp. (98%). E. coli isolates were 100% resistant to cefixime while Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were 100% resistant to cefuroxime. Furthermore, the different strains of isolates phenotypically exhibited multidrug resistance, with E. coli having the highest multidrug resistance of 73.33% to the combinations of cefuroxime, cefixime, ceftazidime, augmentin, and nitrofurantoin. It is suggested that if adequate process treatment is given to packaged water, during production and the microbial quality kept within the World Health Organization (WHO) and Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON) standards, the presence of these bacterial pathogens, as well as their antibiotic resistant and multi-drug resistant forms would be eliminated in the water, hence, would make the drinking water safe for public consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conceptual Design and Finite Element Analysis of a Five-Minute Mini D.C Powered Air Compressor for Inflating Automobile Tyres

Peter Kayode Farayibi, Oluwole Timothy Ojo, Oluwajuwon Oluwagbemisola Caleb

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2018/46575

In this study, a Five-minute DC powered tyre inflator has been successfully designed. The machine was designed to satisfy a tyre specification of R205/65R15 95H because it is widely used by both private and commercial vehicle users. The design has two units; the compressor side and the electric motor side. The components of the compressor side include; piston, crank shaft, cylinder, cylinder head, rings, crank case, valves, pressure gauge and four studs. The design analysis of the reciprocating parts, connecting rod and crank shaft was done and structural integrity of the members evaluated using Finite Element modelling tool in Solidworks CAD application. Under the action of 155 N load on top of the piston, the simulation result indicates that a maximum stress of  was reached along the fillet neck of the connecting rod, and this value is lower than the yield strength of the material used which is . The strength worthiness with respect to slenderness ratio of the connecting rod was confirmed by the buckling analysis with a shape factor of 0.8. Upon the subjection of the crank shaft to a load of 155 N acting normally to the crank pin, the shaft experienced a negligible resultant displacement of and a maximum stress of with a minimum factor of safety of indicating that the crank shaft design is appropriate. The volumetric efficiency is found to be 80% while the working efficiency is 62.5%. The conceptual design is considered fit for fabrication based on the design analysis and evaluation.