Open Access Original Research Article

Flood Inundation and Monitoring Mapping in Nigeria Using Modis Surface Reflectance

Mangut Yohanna Silas, Salami Ayobami Taofeek, Adepoju Kayode Adewale, Samson Samuel Adeyemi, Danladi Victor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2019/28439

Nigeria is witnessing the effect of climate change majorly through flood events. Recent flood disaster in Nigeria posed a threat on people, communities, institutions as well as ecosystem. Floods are common in Nigeria during the peak of raining season (June – October). Remote sensing images and Geographical Information System (GIS) can be efficient tools to determine flood inundated areas. The study developed the sensitivity of water indices to flood water detection and examine the spatial extent of flood inundation -+using MODIS surface reflectance data in Nigeria. In this context, the study involved the use of land surface water index to assess flooding risk at regional scale in Nigeria by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) 8th day time series data for the periods 2010 and 2012. Flood events are developed from Enhance Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI). In order to limit water detection to cloud conditions, MODIS data cloud mask was used to filter the cloudy conditions. The result showed that the water indices (EVI, NDVI, NDWI and LSWI) were highly effective and sensitive in flood water detection. The maximum extent of flood that occurred in October 2012 was estimated to be 11.14 % while in the flood event of September 2012 the total flood extent was 13.15 % of the total land area of Nigeria. The study concluded that, MODIS products had a great advantage in the high-frequent observation while water indices integrated were very effective for flood inundation mapping technique using MODIS surface reflectance products for the entire country of  Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interference Cancellation by Regenerated Signals in Cellular Network System

K. E. Ukhurebor, E. E. Aigbe, S. M. Maor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2019/34425

Interference reduces the signal quality of any cellular network system and is a major problem in Radio Access Network that need to be addressed because its causes degradation of the signal quality thereby reducing the quality of service of the particular network service provider. Hence, interference must be controlled and managed in other to improve the quality of signal in the cellular network system. This research presents a method of interference reduction by canceling interference by regenerated signals from a cellular network by analyzing the network data from the network statistics using the Microsoft Excel tool. This technique regenerates demodulated uplink data signals for High Speed Uplink Packet Access capable User Equipment and cancels interference by the regenerated signals. This technique will reduce the Multiple Access Interference, improves demodulation performance and increase the uplink system capacity in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) of the cellular network system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Biochemical and Genotoxic Effects of Ecologically Relevant Concentrations of Nickel in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

N. H. Amaeze, H. E. Obanya, C. U. Okoroafor, C. Adikankwu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2019/45724

This study was aimed at determining the biochemical and genotoxic effects of ecologically relevant concentrations of Nickel (Ni) in Ologe Lagoon; which constitutes its originality. An initial field study was conducted to determine the concentrations of some heavy metals (arsenic, nickel and lead) in surface water, sediments, and fish from Ologe Lagoon. Ten fish per test concentration were used for the bioassay. Oxidative stress indicators (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde), and nuclear abnormalities were assessed in fish chronically exposed to ecologically relevant concentrations of Ni. Environmentally relevant concentrations of Ni did not have any significant effects on the levels of reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde after 30 days of exposure. Similarly, Ni had no significant effects on all tested parameters of genotoxicity after day 30. Therefore, environmentally relevant concentrations of Ni in Ologe Lagoon may not have any deleterious effects in terms of oxidative stress and genotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Electromagnetic Fields from Power Lines in Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria

K. E. Ukhurebor, E. E. Aigbe, S. M. Maor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2019/33973

There have been a lot of scientific discords on the effects of electromagnetic fields along electric power lines for close to four decades now. These fields are concentrated close to the power lines and fall with distance. The magnetic fields vary as the load on the power lines changes while the electric fields remain approximately constant. Electric power lines produce large amount of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. This research gives an analysis of electromagnetic fields emitted by 330 kV electric power lines in Idumebo Community, Irrua, Esan Central Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. The measurements results obtained (using ED78S Electrosmog meter) were compared with the international standard threshold values. The results show that the magnetic field only exceeded the threshold value at the public areas while the electric field at all points is still below the limit as recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and other standard regulatory bodies. We also recommend some practical precautionary measures to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Japan’s Demographic-Momentum on a Deflationary Spiral Tracing a Path toward Extinction: Ecological Economics of a Declining Population

Hidekazu Aoki, Nobuo Kawamiya

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2019/44788

In the future, Japan will suffer an accelerating decrease of the population, which is predicted by a demographic report of the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (IPSS). The authors have reanalyzed this issue from a viewpoint of ecological economics and resource statistics and have come to confirm that the results of IPSS indicate Japan's population to have entered an "extinction mode".

An economic situation called "deflationary spiral" means a vicious cycle in which a decline in income levels causes a general price reduction and this reduction causes a further decline in income levels. In Japan, there is an ongoing cycle of this kind that a population decrease leads to a socio-economic contraction, which in turn will cause a further decrease in population. Such a situation can be called a "deflationary spiral of the population". This research treats this population down-spiral in Japan with an analytical approach considerably different from the usual demography.

In the meantime, some UN statistics show that Asian countries are highly liable to face a population decline, which may realize, following Japan, after some decades toward the end of the 21st century. We would like to show that Japan's case can provide an effective and forward-looking suggestion for these countries.