Open Access Minireview Article
This conceptual paper presents a review of the developing trends in engineering education in Nigeria for engineering graduates in the 21st century. A case study approach was used for this study, chronicling several issues that impact quality engineering education presently in Nigeria. However in dealing with the issues this paper recommends that there is a need for Nigeria to become signatory to the international engineering alliance to ensure consistency in standards and the mobility of engineering graduates, encourage university/industrial linkage through the creation of technological parks, and to adapt the system of endowment to gain financial independence.
Open Access Original Research Article
This paper examined the adaptation strategies to climate variability impact of livelihood security of the aged in selected rural settlements of the different ecological zones of Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, Correlation and Principal Component Analysis were used for quantitative data analysis while Content Analysis Method was used for qualitative data analysis. From the study, it was discovered that 54.9% of the respondents were crop farmers with the highest proportions of the respondents in Sudan savannah (85.2%) and Montane zone (85.2%) and about, 70.8% of the respondents were into fishing in the coastal zone of the country. The study also revealed that majority of the respondents (61.8%) earned below N20,000 (US$56) annually. In Guinea Savannah zone 60.1% and Montane zone 88.5% of the respondents adapt by selling their livestock while 60.8% in the Coastal zone and 85.2% in the Sudan savanna zone divert into alternate sources of income. It was also discovered in the study that in all the zones, the common determinant of their responses was their level of education. This implies that there is need for trainings for the aged populations and also diversification of income sources should be encouraged and government should design socio-economic policies to support the rural aged in response to climate change/variability impact as many of them are poor.
Open Access Original Research Article
This study was carried out to analyse climate change manifestations among sesame farmers in Benue State. A combination of purposive and random sampling techniques was used to select 372 sesame producers. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The result showed that climate change manifested as follows: Changes in time of rains (98.66%), drought (96.51%), extreme temperatures (96.24%), floods (92.74%), excess rainfall (90.05 percent), nutrient leaching (91.13%), soil erosion (90.59%) and pest/disease infestation (94.62%). The result also showed that sesame production in the study area were adversely affected by changed timing of rains (98.92%), drought (96.77%), extreme temperatures (95.16%), floods (93.28%), excess rainfall (91.13%), nutrient leaching (90.86%), soil erosion (90.32%) and pest/disease infestation (97.31%). The result further showed overall level of adverse effects of climate change manifestations among the respondents in descending order from low to high. The result indicates that the overall mean score (M) was 3.53. While about most (48.12%) of the sesame farmers in the study area indicated that climate change had a moderate level of adverse effects of on their sesame production. 37.37% of them indicated high level adverse effects of climate change on their sesame production and 14.52% indicated low level adverse effects of climate change on their sesame production. It was therefore recommended that agricultural extension service should play a crucial role of informing its clientele (farmers) on how best to adapt to climate change impacts. Researchers and extension agents must as a matter of urgency work closely with sesame farmers to create awareness on the adverse effects of climate change as it affects their farming activities. They must also strengthen the confidence of farmers by expressing faith in such adaptive measures for a sustainable agricultural development.
Open Access Review Article
Since the second half of 1900 century, after the diffusion of the first He-Ne Lasers, several ‘reading key’ on relative movements while seeing a speckle pattern depending on the eye ametropias have been proposed. This paper quotes the development of these different approaches to this phenomenology, as a historical survey, and shows that a complete explanation must involve the vision psychophysics and the retinal structure.