Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Quality of Kunu Drink Sold in Bayelsa State Nigeria and the Pathogenic Potential of Some Isolates

Amala ., Smart Enoch, Daw, Mercy Omeremu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v22i430092

Introduction: Kunu or kunun-zaki is a beverage drink made from grains such as millet, sorghum and maize or other combinations. It is a non-alcoholic beverage marketed in public places such as offices, markets, schools, motor parks and used in festivities such as weddings, birthday celebration, naming ceremonies etc. The high bacterial content of kunu calls for investigation.

Aim: The aim of this research is to isolate, identify bacterial contaminants in kunu and determine enterotoxin producing abilities of some isolates.

Methodology: A total of 150 bottles of kunu were purchased, 50 each from Yenagoa, Sagbama and Ogbia respectively. Each bottle of kunu was properly mixed by gentle inversion several times and 1 mL of the kunu was pipetted and added to 9mL sterile peptone water. Subsequent serial dilution was made to 105. Then 0.1 mL was placed on agar media in duplicate. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 18-24 hours and examined for growth.

Results: The bacteria isolated from Kunu were Staphylococcus aureus 150 (27.8%), Escherichia coli 150 (27.8%), Bacillus sp. 150 (27.8%) and Staphylococci sp. 90 (16.7%) respectively. Out of the S. aureus isolated, 25 (16.6%) produced enterotoxin and E. coli isolated, 19 (13%) produced enterotoxin respectively.

Conclusion: The contamination of kunu occurs during processing, packaging and by vendors. Improved personal hygiene of the producers, environment and proper preservation methods will reduces bacterial proliferation and spoilage of kunu. The consumption of kunu is of public health interest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wood by-Product as Storage Material for Post-Harvest Management of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) at Breaker Stage

Israel Oluwasanmi Lawal, Samuel Adesayo Akande, Odunayo Benedicta Adebayo, Ifedapo Solomon Ayanda, Adeola Saheed Ibrahim, Titilope Abosede Fashanu, Adetutu Yetunde Adediji

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v22i430093

The study evaluated the effect of wood by-product on the storability of fresh breaker tomato. The samples (Kerewa variety) were harvested, cooled by aeration and divided into three lots (B0=control; B1=1: 1, tomato: wood by-product; B2=1: 2, tomato: wood by-product). They were kept in uniformly sized paper carton (170 mm×120 mm×140 mm) on the shelf for 28 days. The organoleptic properties of the stored tomatoes were assessed on 5-point hedonic scale, as well as the physicochemical properties (moisture, pH, acidity, and soluble solids), carotenoids, vitamin C content and mineral analysis. Result showed that; B1 and B2 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than control in colour, appearance and overall acceptability while no significant (p<0.05) difference was observed between B1 and the control in firmness and odour. Weight or moisture loss (%) and decay incidence were higher in control than both B1 and B2. Moisture content (MC) reduced significantly (p<0.05) in sample B2 while no significant (p>0.05) difference was observed in control and B1 after 28 days storage. The pH of B1 was significantly (p<0.05) lower than B2 and the control but the β-carotene and vitamin C of B1 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than B2 and control. Wood by-product had shown some potentials for post-harvest handling of fresh breaker tomato most especially when used at ratio 1: 1 (w/w %).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Angled Submerged Vanes on Bed Morphology Downstream Sluice Gate

M. M. Ibrahim

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v22i430094

Scour is a characteristic marvel caused because of the erosive activity of flowing stream on alluvial beds which expels the silt around or close structures situated in streaming water. In this paper, an experimental study was directed to foresee the impact of oriented vanes introduced on level stilling basin downstream a sluice gate on bed material planning to limit the local geometry of scour and silting. The considered shape in this exploration is easy to be utilized as an additional component to be implemented on the stilling basin of any current water structures. Two hundred and sixty runs were executed using 10 models of stilling basins considering different heights and angles of vanes under various flow conditions including the discharges and tail gate water depths. An instance of level floor without vanes was incorporated into the test program to foresee the impact of vanes establishment. The experimental outcomes were accounted for 2 distinctive bed materials. Results were analyzed and graphically introduced. Simple formulas were given to estimate the geometry of the local scour and silting.

Open Access Original Research Article

“Study of Phenology of Woody Flora of Gulmarg and Its Neighbourhood” for Landscape Use

Azfar Bashir Nanda, Nelofar ., Raiz Ahmed Lone

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v22i430095

The present investigation entitled “Study of phenology of ornamental flora of Gulmarg and its neighbourhood for landscape use” conducted during the years 2008-2010 in Gulmarg area of Kashmir valley. For this purpose four representative zones including zone A. ferozpur (1880 m.asl) and Tangmarg (2153 m.asl), zone B. Drang. (2218 m.asl) zone C. Doobi ghat (2218 m.asl), Gulmarg (2688 m.asl) and Baba reshi (2703 m.asl) and zone D. khelanmarg (3041 m.asl) were selected and recorded observations on flower emergence by making exploratory trips to these sites. Phonological spectrum of the flora of deciduous trees and shrubs, broad leaf evergreen trees and shrubs, deciduous woody vines, ground covers and evergreen ground cover shrubs revealed maximum availability of flowers during spring followed by summer and autumn.

Open Access Original Research Article

Model for Mathematics Teachers Development

Evans Atteh, Emmanuel Appoh Andam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v22i430096

This paper identifies 3 – step model that can be adopted by every mathematics teacher and various training settings to effectively move teaching towards an active learning environment. This model which is built upon existing ideas proposed over the years in education and best practices concerning cognitive development and effective teaching and learning environment tends to equip teachers with very useful skills for classroom instructions. Ultimately, this model can aid teachers to move teaching and learning towards an active learning environment which is more effective and enjoyable for teachers and students for learning.