Open Access Original Research Article

Reproductive & Biomarker Response of Male Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus) to a Daily Dose of Soft Drink

Oriakpono, Obemeata E., Owolabi, Iyabo S.

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v22i530099

The effect of a daily consumption of soft drink was evaluated using 24 albino male rats divided into two groups viz:control and treatment. The experiment was carried out for four (4) weeks. The treatment (a brand of soft drink) was administered to the test group for three weeks while on the fourth week no treatment was given to the test group. The parameters analysed include; Sperm count, kidney function test, liver test, red blood cell, pack cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cell, platelets, lymphocytes. The results showed that: The mean serum electrolyte for Na (mmol/l) was low for week 1, 2, 3 and 4 having 142, 140, 133.6 and 141.66 respectively when compared to the average control (147.3) with a significant difference (P<0.05) in week 1 and 4, K (mmol/l)  were all lower than the average control (5.4) across the week with no significant difference (P>0.05) but had the least mean value of 4.8 in week 2. Bicarbonate (mmol/l) was also significantly lower (P<0.05) in the treated group when compared to the average control (24.3) with the least mean value in week 4 (18.67) and Cl (mmol/l) had a mean of 93.0 in week 1, 94.67 in week 2, 108.66 in week 3 and 107.67 in week 4 with an average control of 99.33. AST (U/L) mean value was 20.67 in week 1 which increased to 31.67 in week 4 while ALT (U/L) mean value was 10 in week 1 which also increased to 13 in week 4. The mean serum protein (g/dL) reduced from 81.83 in week 1 to 73.24 in week 4. Mean PCV (%) reduced from 33.67 in week 1 to 32.7 in week 4, Hb (g/dL) increased from 11.2 in week 1 to 13.4 in week 4 with a significant difference (P<0.05) when comparing the test with the average control, WBC (X109) increased from a mean  5.26 in week 1 to 11.9 in week 4 with a significant difference (P<0.05), Platelet (X109) mean value was 315 on week 1 and 419 in week 4 with significant difference (P<0.05) in week 3 and 4 when compared with its control, RBC (X1012) increased from a mean of 4.23 in week 1 to 6.90 in week 4 with significant difference (P<0.05). Lymphocyte (X109) mean value for week 1 was 70 and 82.26 in week 4 with significant difference (P<0.05) across the week. While the mean sperm count (X106) reduced significantly (P<0.05) from 425 in week 1 to 400 in week 4 when compared to the average control (566). These findings demonstrate that regular consumption of soft drink had a detrimental effect on the sperm count, liver, kidney and on the haematological parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Radiation Absorbed Dose Rates from Selected Mobile Phone Base Stations in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

A. O. Ilori, B. Adeleye

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v22i530100

The aim of this study is to measure the radiation dose from Mobile Phone Base Stations relative to human exposure at various locations within Ibadan metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria by measuring the radiation dose at 10 - 100 metres distance away from the randomly selected base stations and compare the results with other studies/recommended exposure limit. A Victoreen radiation survey meter (fluke 451 model) was used to measure the radiation dose. The meter was calibrated with a calibration factor of 1.1 to standardized the values measured with international recommended standards. The average radiation dose reported for the studied area was 9.36, 11.28, 8.73, 10.17, 8.58, 9.80, 7.13, 10.05, 8.14 and 8.81 µSv/hr respectively. The mean value of radiation dose from the study area was 9.21 µSv/hr which is higher than the maximum permissible level of 5.7 µSv/hr recommended by the American Nuclear Society for persons within 0 – 100 m from a mobile phone base station. The values vary according to the distance which shows that the strength of the radiation field is greatest at the source and diminished quickly with distances. Results obtained for the present study showed that radiation emitted at mobile phone base station are at intensities that are thousands of times less than intensities that can produce a heating effect. Hence, the assumption from the results obtained for the present study area is that the radiation exposures from mobile phone base stations impose no health hazard as the limits recommended in the guidelines by International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection do not appear to have any known adverse consequence on human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Thermal Treatment on Anatomical and Mechanical Properties of Ricinodendron heudelotii Wood

E. A. Iyiola, S. O. Ayanleye, O. Catherine, B. Olufemi, F. A. Faruwa, A. Wekesa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v22i530101

The study examined the impact of thermal treatment on anatomical and mechanical properties Ricinodendron heudelotii wood. Wood samples were oven dried at 105°C and cooled in a desiccator to a constant weight before the thermal treatment. Heat treatment of wood was carried out in a Furnace at 120°C, 140°C and 160°C for 45 minutes and 90 minutes. The Density, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE), Modulus of Rupture (MOR), and the anatomical properties were assessed. The results for Density of Ricinodendron heudelotii wood showed decrease from 279 kg/m3 (120°C at 45 minutes) to 256 kg/m3 (160°C at 90 minutes) while that of control was 281 kg/m3   which was lower than the treated samples. The increase in temperature with time had effect of the color of wood as it changed from creamy white to dark brown. The image of untreated and treated samples showed no significant changes within and among treatment groups as there was no effect of treatment time and exposure on the samples.

The MOE of heat treated Ricinodendron heudelotii increased from 2064.84 N/mm2 (140°C for 45 minutes) to 2271.93 N/mm2 (160°C for 90 minutes) while MOR decreased from 40.56 N/mm2 (140°C for 90 minutes) to 33.53 N/mm2 (160°C for 90 minutes). The study revealed that the wood could be used in a light furniture as unnecessarily heavy wood is not important. Also, the study proved effective in improving the modulus of elasticity of the wood.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Effects of Charcoal Production as Perceived by the Rural Dwellers in Rainforest and Guinea Savannah Agro-ecological Zones of Nigeria

O. Odebode, Stella, O. Eniola, Philip

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v22i530102

Aims: The aim of this study is to access the health effects of charcoal production (CP) as perceived by the rural dwellers in the study area.

Study Design: Survey study. Relevant quantitative data on charcoal production were used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Rainforest (RF) and Guinea savannah (GS) zones of Nigeria between 14th February 2012 and 1st November 2013.

Methodology: Multiple stage sampling procedure was used to select a sample of 83 and 85 charcoal producers in the Rainforest and Guinea savannah zones respectively. Structured interview schedule data collected and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: The study noted that the modal ages of respondents were within the same age-range of between 35 and 44 years. Male respondents were 88.0% and 90.5% from RF and GS respectively. Respondents (59.0%) in RF zone had primary school leaving certificate, while, about 30.6% in the GS attended Koranic School. Eleven was the mean years of experience for CP in the RF zone and 14 years for the GS zones. Hundred percent of the respondents used ancient earth mound method of CP and the respondents (36.1%.) from the RF zone had annual output of more than 128,000kg. Respondents perceived that CP may lead to skin and respiratory tract irritation/infection (72.3%, 57.6%.); CP may cause cut, crush and laceration of hand (78.3%, 69.4%.); burns (90.0%, 49.4%.); back and muscle pains (73.5, 70.6%.) and CP may lead to body wounds (73.5%, 58.5%.) in RF and GS zones respectively. Majority (84.7%) in GS and 84.3%. in RF perceived that CP had negative effects on the health status of rural dwellers. Significant difference was predicted in the health status of charcoal producers between the agro-ecological zones (F=3.124). There is the need for awareness campaign on health consequences of CP.

Open Access Original Research Article

Grooming Telecommunications Network: Optimization Replicas and Techniques

Kadiri Kamoru Oluwatoyin, Alimi Maryam Odunola, Ajisafe Yusuph

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v22i530104

The rapid expansion of the use of internet in the last decade has been made feasible largely by optical networks with high bandwidth and consistency. This paper explores the meaning of grooming, the methodological context in which it can be applied. An innovative nomenclature incarcerates useful aspects of grooming problems and is used to review publications on traffic-engineering and optimization problem class. The paper proposed an efficient traffic grooming model for all optical networks. The model has low complexity and it can be easily implemented for traffic grooming problems.