Open Access Original Research Article

Vehicle-Derived Heavy Metals and Human Health Risk Assessment of Exposure to Communities along Mubi-Yola Highway in Adamawa State (Nigeria)

I. B. Bwatanglang, P. Alexander, N. A. Timothy

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v23i130110

In this study, the health risk caused by heavy metals exposure to communities along Mubi-Yola highways was evaluated. Samples from Mubi, Hong, Gombi, Song, and Gerei were collected and analyzed for Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Cupper (Cu), and Nickel (Ni) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The mean concentrations of the metals used for the risk assessment were observed to fall in this order Zn>Pb>Ni>Cu>Cd>Cr. The non-carcinogenic risk based on the target hazard quotient (THQ) and human health index (HI) values for each exposure pathway and for each metal were observed to be less than (<) 1 which means, exposure to the heavy metals has no immediate risks for both the adults and children in the settlements. The lifetime cancer risk (CRI) for the metals for both the ingestion (CRIIng) and inhalation (CRIInh) exposure pathways were observed to pose no lifetime carcinogenic risk. The CRI for all the exposure pathways and for all age categories were <10-4. Similarly, the combine effect or total cancer risk (TCRI) for each exposure pathway show high probability for carcinogenic risk by ingestion route compared to exposure by inhalation. The order of exposure were observed to be adults<children. Though the CRI and TCRI results were observed to be within the acceptable range for developing cancer, the result  however suggest that children could be more susceptible to potential carcinogenic risk following continual exposure to heavy metals from vehicular activity. Indicating some concern about the expansion of unregulated settlements along heavy traffic highways.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Transmission Dynamics of Anthrax in Animals: A Modeling Approach

George Thiong’o Githire, George Kimathi, Mary Wainaina

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v23i130111

This paper seeks to develop a SIR model with vaccination compartment in the study of anthrax transmission dynamics in animal population. The model employ ordinary differential equations in the formulation of its equation. The model’s steady states solutions are investigated. The disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium of the model are analyzed qualitatively. Vaccination rate below a certain critical value causes the anthrax disease to persist. Recruitment and contact rates are the most sensitive parameters that significantly contribute to the basic reproductive ratio.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of the Sexual Maturity of Threadfins Polydactylus quadrifilis (Cuvier, 1829), Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch, 1795) and Pentanemus quinquarius (Linné, 1758) of the Artisanal Marine Fishery of Grand-Lahou (Ivory Coast)

Kouassi Sylvain Konan, Ebram Luc Gervais Djadji, Yao Nicolas Amon, Konan N’da

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v23i130112

Reproduction of the threadfins of the costal shelf of Grand-Lahou was studied with a monthly sampling frequencies range from may 2009 to april 2011. 534 specimens of Polydactylus quadrifilis, composed of 315 males and 219 females and 648 Galeoides decadactylus composed of 420 males and 228 females, then 453 individuals of Pentanemus quinquarius composed of 210 males and 243 females were used.

The sexual maturity parameters of threadfins fishes indicate a size of first maturity (L50 = 67.5 cm) for females of Polydactylus quadrifilis and (L50 = 55.5 cm) with their males. Concerning  the specimens of Pentanemus quinquarius, females present (L50 = 15 cm) and their males (L50 = 14.5 cm). This parameter has identical values ​​with the females of Galeoides decadactylus (L50 = 15.5 cm) and their males (L50 = 15.5 cm). The individuals of Polydactylus quadrifilis and the specimens of Galeoides decadactylus and Pentanemus quinquarius become mature at 1 year of age. The sex ratio determination show that specimens of Polydactylus quadrifilis show a predominance of males during the warm season, from October (73.68%) to March (64.28%) which weakens during the cold season, from May (30%) to July (58%). For Galeoides decadactylus, the sex ratio shows a predominance of males, from August (88%) to March (94.73%). Concerning specimens of Pentanemus quinquarius, the sex ratio is in favor of the females whose lowest value is during the cold season in July (21.74%).

All threafin species reach sexual maturity from their first year of life with different sex ratios variations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improved Online Security Framework for e-Banking Services in Nigeria: A Real World Perspective

O. Sarjiyus, N. D. Oye, B. Y. Baha

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v23i130113

Internet technology has given Banks the opportunity to provide customers robust, convenient and flexible banking services including, but not limited to fund transfers, account checking and payment of bills. Despite these huge benefits, e-banking has given rise to so many security concerns arising from countless threats. The rise in security threats against e-banking has caused a decline in the use of online banking and has negatively affected customer confidence in the ability of banks to protect their money and information and are looking up to the banks to fix the problems. This research, Improved Online Security Framework for e-banking services is geared towards developing an improved security framework that solves the issues of authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation as it pertains to online banking attacks. Data was collected from primary and secondary sources ranging from interviewing relevant stakeholders that use internet banking to consultations of related journals articles and technical reports. Design and modeling tools such as UML usecases, Entity relationship (E-R) diagrams, process flow modeling and MySQL for a robust database design were used to capture basic system functionalities and artifacts required. The entire design was implemented on Visual studio platform. Upon running and testing on a XAMPP server, the system was found to meet all design objectives and operationally effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons Profiles in Some Nigerian Crude Oils

N. Boisa, T. J. K. Ideriah, C. S. Okehie

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v23i130114

Aim: To evaluate the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in some Nigerian crude oils.

Study Design: Field and Laboratory-Experimental Design were used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: Crude oil samples were obtained from three locations (designated as Location 1, Location 2, and Location 3) in the Niger Delta, Nigeria.

Methodology: The samples were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction using dichloromethane and analysed using GC-FID.

Results: The results of the analyses of the crude oils gave polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations of 2.6089 x 104 ppm representing 60.06% and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of 4.3201 x 104 ppm at Location 1, PAHs concentration of 4.764 x 103 ppm (62.8%) and TPH recording a concentration of 7.583x 103 ppm at Location 2, while Location 3 had PAHs concentration of 9.93 x 102 ppm (30.66%) and TPH concentration of 3.239 x 103 ppm. The total concentrations of the high molecular weight PAHs were lower than those of the low molecular weight PAHs in the samples. Also the concentrations of the individual PAHs were higher in the low molecular weight PAHs. The mean PAHs concentrations of 2707.6 ppm (location 1), 551.5 ppm (location 2) and 90.7 ppm (location 3) are different.

Conclusion: The observed  results show that all the sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants are present in the three crude oil samples with higher concentrations in the light crude oils than in the heavy crude oil and a strong correlation with the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration. It was also observed that though the ratios of the low molecular weight PAHs to high molecular weight PAHs of the crude oils indicate petrogenic, the unique diagnostic ratios suggest pyrogenic input. There is therefore the need to develop a method of PAHs removal from PAHs contaminated water based on locally available and cheap materials.