Open Access Short Research Article
Introduction: Formaldehyde is an industrial chemical that is classified as a volatile organic compound (VOC). It is commonly use in mortuaries for the preservation (embalmment) of the dead in Rivers State. Mortuary workers are occupationally exposed to formaldehyde by inhalation and skin contact. This objective/aim of the study was to measure and compare the concentration of formaldehyde in public and private mortuaries of Rivers State, Nigeria.
Methodology: This cross-sectional (field) survey was carried out in 9 public and 6 private mortuaries in Rivers State. The Time-Weighted Average (TWA) and short- Term Exposure Limit (STEL) of formaldehyde concentrations in the embalmment sections of the mortuaries were measured using a suitable formaldehyde gas detector instrument. The mortuaries were selected by a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected, entered and analyzed using XL STATA and SPSS and presented in tables and graphs.
Results: The mean TWA concentration of formaldehyde in public and private mortuaries was 2.42+-1.77 and 2.52+-0.99 ppm respectively. Also, the STEL concentration measured in public and private mortuaries were 0.91+-0.99 and 1.93+-1.22 ppm. The 8 hour TWA values exceeded OSHA (0.75) and NIOSH (0.016 ppm) standards.
Conclusion: There was a high concentration of formaldehyde in both public and private mortuaries which may pose high risk to the health of the mortuary workers of Rivers State. The study recommended health education and surveillance among mortuary workers and good engineering design in the mortuary.
Open Access Short Research Article
This research explored the influence of information sources availability on academic performance of secondary school students using a descriptive survey design. One hundred and fifty senior secondary school students were randomly selected from three secondary schools in Osogbo. Data was collected using a self-structured questionnaire that covers all the variables under study. Percentage was used to answer the research questions while regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses postulated. The findings indicated that information sources (library information, teachers information and textbook information) has significant influence on academics performance of student. The result of the hypotheses showed significant relationship between the independent variables (information sources) and dependent variable (academic performance). The value of F-statistic was 627.253 with p <0.05 shows that the overall model was statistically significant. The result revealed that library information, Teachers information and Textbook information have significant combined impact on academics performance of selected senior secondary school in Osun State. It recommended that The school administration should maintain the existing information sources they have and make request to the government for the provisions of this sources.
Open Access Short communication
When fossil fuels are extracted from the earth, they are naturally replaced by a layer of water. Water has high thermal conductivity as compared to coal, oil, and gas. This will increase the heat transfer rate from the underground in all directions but most importantly towards the surface of the earth and seas due to the greater temperature difference. Additionally, heat losses and thermal emissions from boreholes will be even higher and given that there are more than 4 million onshore hydrocarbon wells (producing and non-producing) around the world, the heat emissions could be significant. Added to this is the heat from thousands of coal mines across the world. We review the literature and report on temperature trends observed in areas subject to fossil fuel extraction. We find that land and sea areas subject to fossil fuel extraction are experiencing relatively high rates of temperature rise. We examine the case of the Arctic in some detail and compare sea-ice extent change in both the Arctic and Antarctica. We find that despite increasing levels of CO2 observed in the Polar Regions, sea-ice extent is shrinking in the Arctic and expanding in the Antarctic. We believe that a possible cause of shrinking sea-ice in the Arctic could be geothermal heat rising to the surface as a direct result of fossil fuel extraction in regions such as Siberia and Alaska. To provide a crude approximation of the heat released from the earth’s interior and subsequent impact on global average temperature as a result of earth insulation loss, we use worldwide oil and gas production data from 2007 until 2017. We find the subsequent impact on global surface temperature over this period to be 0.026°C compared with an observed temperature rise of 0.15°C. This amounts to 17% of total warming observed over the period attributable to earth insulation loss, which is significant. We end by making some suggestions on further research necessary to fully understand the possible effect of earth insulation loss on rising global temperature.
Open Access Original Research Article
The study focused on the alterations in steroid hormone levels of Clarias gariepinus. Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of cypermethrin over a 28 days period. A total of 200 sub-adults of C. gariepinus with a mean weight of 55.280 ± 6.281g were used throughout the study. Sub-adults of C. gariepinus were exposed to 0.00 ppm, 0.0125 ppm, 0.025 ppm, 0.100 ppm and 0.400 ppm of cypermethrin. The concentration of 17β-Estradiol and testosterone in C. gariepinus sub-adults exposed to 0.0125 ppm, 0.025 ppm, 0.100 ppm and 0.400 ppm of the toxicant for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days decreased significantly from the control, with increase in toxicant at p<0.05, except for 17β-Estradiol and testosterone in fish exposed to 0.0125 ppm of cypermethrin for 21 days and 7 days. The mean levels of estradiol decreased in 0.400 ppm group compared to the control; from 212.4 ± 3.156 pg/mL to 118.9 ± 9.682 pg/mL (Day 7); 210.5 ± 8.286 pg/mL to 90.70 ± 7.554 pg/mL (Day 14); 131.7 ± 5.652 pg/mL to 80.77 ± 6.882 pg/mL (Day 21) and 177.6 ± 12.25 pg/mL to 52.77 ± 11.08 pg/mL (Day 28). The mean levels of testosterone decreased in 0.400 ppm group compared to the control; from 2.367 ± 0.208 pg/mL to 0.823 ± 0.276 pg/mL (Day 7); 2.700 ± 0.200 pg/mL to 0.466 ± 0.152 pg/mL (Day 14); 3.200 ± 0.300 pg/mL to 0.300 ± 0.100 pg/mL (Day 21) and 2.933 ± 0.251 pg/mL to 0.366 ± 0.208 pg/mL (Day 28). Due to adverse alteration in 17β-Estradiol and testosterone concentration of the test fish, we recommend that the Government sensitizes the farmers properly on the proper use of pesticides and also enforce against an excess application of pesticides. More of similar studies should be funded to continue monitoring the effects of various pesticides on fishes and the aquatic eco-system at large.
Open Access Original Research Article
This paper focuses on the design of software and hardware for the purification and recycling of domestic sewage discharged from a residential area. According to the characteristics of domestic sewage, the process used in this paper is determined to be Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) process and the allocation of system input/output (I/O) port. According to the determination of the process flow to select appropriate instruments, sensors and other equipment, using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to design the system in manual mode and automatic mode of the program respectively, to achieve the function of sewage treatment.