Open Access Short communication
Aims: The aims of this paper are to design a monitoring system for wastewater disposal.
Study Design: The study design is to design a monitoring system and perform simulation analysis based on Kingview software.
Place and Duration of Study: The place and duration of study are North China University of Water Resources and Electric power and one month respectively.
Methodology: The methodology used is computer simulation technology.
Results: The result of the experiment is to monitor the sewage disposal process through the developed monitoring system.
Conclusion: The conclusion is that the monitoring system can achieve dynamic control of the sewage disposal process.
Open Access Minireview Article
This study unanimously confirms that rural infrastructure is a sine qua non for significantly improving the quality of human life and phenomenally accelerating the process of agricultural development in Africa. Infrastructure projects, however, involve huge initial capital investments, long gestation periods, high incremental capital output ratio, high risk, and low rate of returns on investments. Rural infrastructure has direct and strong relationship with farmers’ access to institutional finance and markets, and increasing crop yields, thereby promoting agricultural growth. Agricultural infrastructure has the potential to transform the existing traditional agriculture or subsistence farming into a most modern, commercial and dynamic farming system in Sub Saharan Africa. Increase in investment of agricultural infrastructure leads to increase in output and employment, a full investment formulation that meets the needs of domestic or external (multilateral and bilateral) funding sources will have to be carried out. Overall, a flexible, participatory approach will be needed, with full national and local involvement and commitment, while international partners, including Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), give initial assistance to New partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) in this process. The paper therefore recommends that technical and financial assistance will be required to help build capacity in African countries to face the challenges and take full advantage of the opportunities flowing from the multilateral trading systems.
Open Access Original Research Article
Introduction: Lower back pain is one of the most common work-related problems among teaching professionals in both developed and developing nations and it often leads to absenteeism or early retirement of workers. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of low back pain among academic staff.
Methods: An institutional based cross-sectional study was adopted. Five faculties were randomly selected in Ekiti State University, Nigeria and a self-structured questionnaire was purposively administered; depending on interest and availability of the respondents. The data was explored and Chi-square analysis alongside binary logistic regression was applied in order to evaluate the relationship between low back pain and some associated factors. Analysis was carried out in SPSS version 20.
Results: This study comprises 127 lecturers with a mean age of (41.95±9.42). There were more males (55.9%) than females. More than thirty six percent of the lecturers had teaching experience below 5 years while 44.9% had 5 to 10 years and 18.9% had above 10 years of teaching experience. The results show that age, gender, prolonged sitting and prolonged standing significantly (p-value <.05) associated with occurrence of low back pain among lecturers while mixed teaching posture serves a protective against low back pain.
Conclusion: The results reveal a very high prevalence of low back pain. Findings show that female gender, old age and inappropriate work postures are the risk factors of low back pain. It is suggested that effort should be to ameliorate occupational stress among academic staff.
Open Access Original Research Article
Malaria is a global menace that claimed many lives. The potential of mushroom at appropriate dosage, concentrations and suitable condition especially as antiplasmodial agents against malaria is important. Therefore, this study investigated the interactive effects of some fungi extracts (Pleurotus tuber-regium, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Fomes lignosus, Lentinus subnudus, Termitomyces robustus) and their combinations with malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei berghei in BALB/c strain albino mice. Intraperitoneal injection of experimental animals with 0.2 mL of 5x106 parasitized blood was done before or after oral administration of the extracts of 0.1 mL fungi extracts at five concentrations. There were 3 replicates. The percentage parasitemia, packed cell volume (PCV), the weight loss of the albino mice were monitored. The extract; and concentration levels recorded highly significant (p< 0.01) effects on the parasitemic level (137.96; 329.26), PCV (4539.48; 2357.93) and weights (53.46; 510.56) of experimental animals in prophylactic and therapeutic experiments. Also, highly significant interactions (of 521.30) was obtained from extracts x concentrations. Lentinus subnudus and Fomes lignosus as well as P. tuber-regium had the best prophylactic and therapeutic potentials of 30%; 36% and 36% respectively. Lentinus subnudus could be considered a good prophylaxis in prevention of malaria as it exceeds therapeutic effect. Concentrations 0.4 mg/mL and 0.04 mg/mL were found to be the most effective; producing similar effect as chloroquine (20 mg/kg body weight) used as control. Therefore, the optimum activity of the fungi extracts was interactive against the malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei berghei in the albino mice.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aim: Microbial air quality over illegal refuse dump sites in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, was conducted to assess the aero-microbial contaminant of dumpsite to the closest neighbourhood and the harmful distance.
Place and Duration of Study: The dump sites were located at oil mill market (Latitude 4.8578 N4°51'28.06344'' Longitude 7.06653 E7°3'59.50152'') and Iloabuchi Timber market (longitude N4.790191, latitude E6.988416) all in Port Harcourt, South South Nigeria. The samplings were carried out between June (dry season) and July (wet season) 2018.
Methodology: The microbial concentration of air around the dump sites were measured using the “sedimentation method” that involved exposing different sterile Petri dishes containing nutrient agar, Mac Conkey agar, and sabauroud dextrose agar to the air for ten minutes. The exposures were carried out at different locations within and around the dump site viz; Top of the dumpsite at different altitude (3ft, 6ft and 9ft above dump surface), 0m, 10m away from the dumpsite, and at the nearest neighbourhood which is about 100m away from the dumpsite. These samplings were carried out to the left and right sides of the dump sites. The samplings were carried out between June and July 2018, so as to compare the microbial load between the dry and wet seasons.
Result: The microbes at the dump sites were in most cases higher than the microbes at the neighbourhood (100m away to the left and right). Seasonal occurrence revealed that microbial load in air during the dry season (6.037±0.92 cfu/min-m2) is higher than during the wet season (1.814±0.19 CFU/min-m2). Percentage variation amongst heterotrophic bacterial isolates revealed, Staphylococcus massiliensis (47.90%) > Erwinia psidii (18.24%) > Shigella dysenteriae (18.17%) > Bacillus simplex (6.08%) > Saminicoccus kunminingensis (3.23%) > Corynebacteriun afermentans (3.00%) > Paenibacillus celluositrophycus (2.25%) > Streptococcus parasuis (5.26%); percentage variation amongst enteric bacterial isolates revealed, Staphylococcus aureus (28.57%) > Geobacillus stearothermophilus (20.82%) > Escherichia coli (8.16%) and Bacillus carboniphilus (8.16) > Salmonella enterica (6.94%) > Bacillus smithii (6.12%) > Macrococcus brunensis (4.49%) > Lactobacillus kitasatonis (3.67%) > Klebsiella pneumonia (2.86%) > Staphylococcus saccharolyticus (2.45%) > Bacillus badius (2.04%) = Paenibacillus lautus (2.04%) > Brevibacillus laterosporus (1.63%). The fungal distribution revealed, Aspergillus fumigatus (16.62%) > Microsporium canis (15.40%) > Aspergillus flavus (14.75%) > Aspergillus niger (10.99%) > Conidiobolus coronatus (10.19%) > Pheaocremonium parasiticum (6.97%) > Fusarium chlamydosporium (6.70%) > Trychophyton etriotrephon (5.63%) > Trychophyton quinckeanum (4.02%) > Lichtheeimia corymbifera (3.57%) > Cladosporium cladosporioides (2.95%) > Saccharomyces spp (2.68]%).
Conclusion: The presence of microbial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella enterica and Aspergillus species, is alarming and of great health concern. The harmful distance exceeds 100m away from the dump site which encroached 30 meters into residential areas. This research work revealed the relevance of Environmental air monitoring in any Governmental Waste Management System and the potential hazard of open dump system of waste disposal around residential area.