Open Access Short Research Article

Scientific and Technical Experiment for Manufacturing Silage in Jordan

Adnan Alnhood, Mohunnad Massimi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v23i430129

Silage is a feed material that has been widely used in previous periods because it has an effective and useful role in feeding animals, saving in the cost of feed and increasing productivity. From the scientific-practical view it is considered as a feed material preserved in an anaerobic environment that ferments sugars and carbohydrates and thus produces organic acids (lactic, citric, and butyric acids), where organic acids work to keep feed material for long periods. A lot of practical experiments have been done to reach the best high-protein percentage mixture. This extension project was designed and implemented in 2017 by the Jordanian Ministry of Agriculture in collaboration with farmers and scientific research stations of the National Center for Agricultural Research. Ten feed mixtures were prepared with the necessary laboratory tests to determine the quality of the produced silage. Mixings of the fodders of alfalfa and corn were made with varying percentages of the two components so that the total does not exceed 100%. In addition, 5 mixtures were made of the first five mixtures, with a total of only 200%. After laboratory testing, the highest protein percentage was found to be 15.25% when fodders of corn mixed 100% with alfalfa by 100%. It is recommended to make this mixture for livestock breeders, especially cow breeders without adding molasses and industrial additives so that the highest yield is achieved, saving in the cost of feed and increasing productivity. This short scientific article aims at presenting a technical and scientific experiment for the production of the best silage by the highest protein level through the use of various mixtures of corn and alfalfa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Study and Evaluation of the Biological Activity of Anorectic Plants Used in the Seno Province (Burkina Faso)

Dramane Pare, Adama Hilou, Jotham Yhi-pênê N’DO, Sidonie Yabre, Nogma Ernest Sombie, Samson Guenne, Aristide Traoré, Odile Germaine Nacoulma

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v23i430125

Background: In Africa plants have always been a good source of medicine for health care. Obesity is a pathology that is growing dramatically in developing countries. Anorectic plants are likely to cause a reduction of exaggerated weight gain. The aim of the study is to determine the phenolic compound content of five anorectic potential plants of Burkina Faso (Ceratotheca sesamoïdes, Gardenia erubescens, Brachystelma bingeri Raphionacme daronii and Vernonia kotschyana), to determine also their antioxidant potential and their acethylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Applied Chemistry (LABIOCA), Research Institute for Health Sciences (IRSS).

Methodology: For the determination of the acute toxicity of the extracts a group of six (6) mice NMRI race were constituted for each plant extract. A dose of 3000 mg / kg of weight was administered to the animals. The methods of screening were used to detect secondary metabolites like tannins, steroids and terpen, flavonoids, coumarins. For the phenol content, the concentration of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were determined. The antioxidant property of the extracts was evaluated in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl acid (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sufonic) (ABTS) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP). The acetylcholinesterase activity of the extracts 0.1 mg / ml was determined by a spectrometric assay method.

Results: Acute toxicity evaluated in NMRI mice showed that the methanolic extracts of five extracts show no toxicity. The coumarins and tannins were detected in all five species of plants. The polyphenol contents of Ceratotheca sesamoides gave the highest total phenolic compound content with 221.97 ± 1.206 mg EAG / g and also the best flavonoids content with 39.58 ± 0.068 mg EQ / g. Antioxidant tests show that Vernonia kotschyana Sch-Bip and Ceratotheca sesamoïdes Endl presented the best inhibitions of the DPPH radical with 82.63 ± 3.29% and 83.62 ± 2.12% at 100µg/ml. This activity is also better than that of quercetin which is a reference substance. For the reducing power of radical cation ABTS .+  the most active macerates of our extracts were obtained with Vernonia kotschyana (51,388 ± 0,133 mmol ET / g extract) and Ceratotheca sesamoides (50,748 ± 0,395 mmol ET / g extract). Ceratotheca sesamoides showed a best activity on reducing power of the ferric ion (7.03 ± 0.44 mmol EAA / g extract), this activity on ferric ion is superior to that of quercetin, which is a reference substance. Raphionacme daronii exhibited the greatest inhibition of acetylcholinesterase with a percentage inhibition of 53.542 ± 4.053 at 100 μg / ml.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated that anorexigenic plant extracts have a good antioxidant potential that is necessary for any weight-reducing activity. They also have an ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodiversity in Forest Fragments under Different Forms of Environmental Conservation, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

Juliana Christovam, Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz, Patrícia da Silva Costa, Constantino Antônio Cavalcante Júnior, Franklin Alves dos Anjos, Marcelo de Andrade Barbosa, Fernando Oliveira Franco, Ivomberg Dourado Magalhães, Aldair de Souza Medeiros, Alberto Soares de Melo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v23i430127

Characteristic environments of forests generally harbor significant biodiversity, which is considered an important indicator of local environmental quality, so that the analysis of this indicator can subsidize the decision making on areas for legal reserve. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biodiversity of forest fragments at different levels of anthropization in the municipality of Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The related research was carried out in three forest fragments, an area under reforested conditions, a natural remnant area and an area under natural regeneration. Each fragment was divided into three sampling units of 240 m2, constituting the replicates. The total frequency of insects, amphibians, birds, mammals, reptiles and trees was evaluated. Cluster analysis indicated that there were differences between the three fragment types. The analyzed variables were summarized in two main components, which explain 87.1% of the accumulated total variance. It was concluded that the areas of natural remnants and reforestation presented higher frequencies of species and, consequently, greater biological diversity than the natural regeneration area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Boiling and Fermentation on Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid and Micronutrients Composition of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) Seeds

Charles Nnanna Chukwu, Charity Uchechi Ogunka-Nnoka, Joyce Oronne Akaninwor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v23i430128

Aim: To ascertain the effects of boiling and fermentation on the physicochemical properties, fatty acid, mineral and vitamin composition of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) seeds.

Study Design: Completely randomized design

Place and Duration of Study: Rivers and Anambra states, Nigeria, between February and September, 2018.

Methodology: Two portions of 200 grams of HS seeds each were subjected to boiling and fermentation. The three samples were designated HSR, HSB and HSF for raw, boiled and fermented HS seeds respectively. Standard methods were used in determining the physicochemical properties and micronutrient composition, while fatty acid constituents were identified using a gas chromatography.

Results: The acid, free fatty acid, peroxidase values and specific gravity were significantly increased (p<0.05), while iodine value was significantly reduced (p<0.05) after boiling and fermentation. Saponification value showed a mixed trend, while refractive index was not significantly (p>0.05) altered. Lauric (5.51–33.79%), palmitic (27.23–30.87%) and myristic (12.69–35.00%) acids were the predominant saturated fatty acids in HSR, HSB and HSF samples respectively. Oleic, linoleic, alpha-linolenic and arachidonic acids were the unsaturated fatty acids present in the samples. Boiling increased oleic acid level, while fermentation caused a drastic reduction (>90%) in its amount. Linoleic acid level improved up to 43% after fermentation. Magnesium, iron and sodium amounts significantly (p<0.05) reduced after boiling and fermentation, while zinc, calcium and molybdenum levels were significantly (p<0.05) improved after boiling. Na/K ratios for all the samples were greater than 0.60, while Ca/Mg values ranged between 0.82 and 3.46, below the recommended value (1.0). Vitamins B1, B3, B12 and D were significantly reduced (p<0.05) after boiling and fermentation, while fermentation significantly increased (p<0.05) vitamins B2, A, E and K levels.

Conclusion: HS seeds were shown to possess good physicochemical properties that can enhance its utility in the industry. Boiling and fermentation maximized the usefulness of HS seeds as quality nutritional plant.

Open Access Review Article

A Study on Cold Plasma for Food Preservation

T. Raviteja, Susan Kanthi Dayam, J. Yashwanth

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v23i430126

Cold plasma is an electrically energized matter composed of highly reactive species which includes molecules of charged and gas with minute particle in the form of negative and positive ions, photons electrons, free radicals at room temperature. It is an emerging technology in non-thermal food preservation in the application of sterilization. An increase in the plasma-based treatment for food is employed to inactivate the food borne pathogens seen in the recent years. The present study recollects the activity of the plasma agents on the microbe population, surface decontamination of the raw produce in the food processing and future novelty in food technology.