Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Trace Elements Compositions of Igneous Intrusions on Public Health in Ishiagu Area of the Southern Benue trough, Southern Nigeria

I. Nwachukwu, V. U. Ukaebgu, N. Egesi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i3-430179

Some health implications of structurally-controlled igneous intrusions in Ishiagu area of southern Benue Trough were studied using the field investigations, trace element geochemistry and geostatistical studies of some of the igneous rocks, the surrounding water and edible vegetables. Results of the study revealed that the average concentrations of these trace metals in the igneous rocks decreased from Mn to Mg as follows: Mn (1431 ppm), Sr (419.5 ppm), Ba (58.11 ppm), Cu (45.63 ppm), Pb (5.48 ppm), As (1.20 ppm), Mo (3.270 ppm), Cd (0.960 ppm) and Mg (0.940 ppm); in water decreased from Mg to Cd as follows: Mg (5.840 mg/l), Sr (1.270 mg/l), Fe (0.3 mg/l), Mo (.013 mg/l), Mn (0.002 mg/l), Ni (0.001 mg/l), As (0.0004 mg/l), Ni (0.001 mg/l), Co (0.0001 mg/l), and Cd (0.0001 mg/l), while in the edible vegetables trace elements decreased from Fe-Ni as follows: Fe (8540 mg/kg), Mg (4085 mg/kg), Al (2352.1 mg/kg), Pb (360.76 mg/kg), Sr (182 mg/kg), Zn (53.38 mg/kg), Ba (46.3 mg/kg) Cu (21.75 mg/kg), Mo (8.97 mg/kg) and Ni (4.92 mg/kg). Geostatistical analysis of the edible vegetables indicates that the bioaccumulation factor of the vegetation with respect to the rock decreased from Pb to Ni as follows: Pb> Mo >Cd >As> Fe > Cr > Cu > Zn>Sr>Mg>Ni. The concentrations of Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mn, Cd, Pb and Zn in water and edible vegetables are higher than the permissible levels recommended by World Health Organization. Thus, the inhabitants of the study area are at risk of myocardial infarction, insulin alteration, anemia, neurodegenerative conditions in humans, renal dysfunction, metal fumes fever, hair and skin discoloration, respiratory tract diseases, carcinogenic diseases, kidney disease, fanconi syndrome, lipid peroxidation of the heart, liver and spleen, hypertension, anemia, colic, headache, brain damage and central nervous system disorder, kidney disease, neurotoxin, lipid peroxidation in the heart, liver and spleen, fanconi syndrome, oesteomalacia, renal dysfunction, learning disabilities and hyperactivity, loss of vision, heart and liver failures, skin irritation, hazardous effects on lungs and brains. The outcome of this study has provided a data base for intervention endeavors for health practitioners to comprehensively monitor and control health issues arising from geologic and mining processes in Ishiagu area of Ebonyi State. The area is in dire need of standard medical facilities, which will, among other things, offer medical aids, document such health matters and keep surveillance so as to detect impact of the trace metals on  the health of the inhabitants of the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Factors Responsible for Project Cost Variation in Enugu, Nigeria

E. E. Eboh, C. C. Egolum, F. O. Ezeokoli, C. I. Onyia

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i3-430180

Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the factors responsible for the cost variation in the construction projects in Enugu, Nigeria, with a view to establishing the impacts of this factors on project delivery in the study area. 

Study Design: it was a survey research, the study was effected via literature review and a well-structured questionnaire. Likewise, interviews were carried out to substantiate the findings of the questionnaire survey.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in Enugu state, Nigeria for a period of 2 years.

Methodology: Being a survey research, a total of one hundred and twenty-six (126) questionnaires were distributed with one hundred and three (103) returned and adequately filled given a percentage response of 81.7%. The data collected was presented and analyzed using tables, frequency, mean score and relative importance index. The analysis was aided by a computer-based software, named Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.

Results: The study found out that more than 40% of the respondents have experience cost overrun while more than 60% of the respondent attest that cost overrun occurs always most of their project. The study observed that the principal factors responsible for this overrun in construction projects in the study area are: poor contract management deficiency in prepared cost estimate and incomplete design. Furthermore, the study observed that the contractor’s desire to improve his financial condition, poor site management and Defective workmanship and availability of skilled labor and change orders/ variation are least factors that contribute to cost overrun in projects in the study area. The study established that the most common effect of cost overrun on project delivery are loss of profit (1.09), fewer returns on investment (0.86) while the least effect is higher rental/lease cost or price (0.70).

Conclusion: The study concluded by recommending that proper contract management, value engineering and effective communication should maintain throughout the lifecycle of the project.

Open Access Original Research Article

Accumulation of Heavy Metals in the Seeds of Zea mays L. from Crude Oil Impacted Soils in Kom-Kom, Rivers State, Nigeria

I. M. Onyejekwe, L. C. Osuji, E. O. Nwaichi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i3-430182

This study assessed and modelled the accumulation of heavy metals in the seeds of Zea mays L. (maize) planted in a crude oil impacted soil. A total of thirteen soil samples were randomly collected. Five samples each were obtained from plot A (PA)and plot B (PB); the crude oil impacted plots. Three samples were obtained from plot C (PC); the control plot which was about 200 m away from the spill impacted area. All samples were analysed for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Heavy Metals [iron (Fe), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr) and vanadium (V)]. Maize was planted on each of the thirteen plots and the seeds upon harvest was analysed for heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Cr and V). The seed accumulation factors for each heavy metal was modelled using TPH as the independent variable. Aside the Zn regression model with R2 value of 0.399, other models performed well with R2 values of 0.994, 0.942, 0.974 and 0.964 for Fe, Pb, Cr and V respectively. TPH was able to model the seed parameters with relatively high model performance except for Zinc. This suggests that accumulation of some heavy metals in the seed of the Zea mays L. planted is dependent on TPH. These models can be useful in predicting accumulation of heavy metals in the seeds of Maize planted in a crude oil polluted soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Correlation of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Oil Polluted Waters of Bonny Local Government Area, Rivers State

Iheonye Chinonye, Osuji Leo, Onyema Mark

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i3-430183

Forensic chemical analyses was used to characterize, determine the source and correlate  aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) in water samples collected from Bonny L.G.A, Rivers State. AHCs were extracted from the water samples with n-hexane in a separatory funnel, clean-up achieved by column chromatography using n-hexane and analysis by Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). The GC chromatogram showed well resolved AHC peaks which distributed from nC9nC40. The GC chromatograms of AHCs, with a wide range of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, indicate minimal biodegradation of the oil hydrocarbons in the samples. CPI values from 0.68 to 0.78 for BY-A1, BY-A3, BY-A4 and 0.97 for BY-A2 suggest two sources of oil hydrocarbons. Calculated Pr/Ph ratios showed BY-A1 (2.08), BY-A3 (2.00) and BY-A4 (2.20) were derived from mixed marine and terrestrial source deposited in suboxic environment, while BY-A2 (3.70) was mainly terrigenous source in an oxic environment. A cross-plot of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18 ratios also showed a tight cluster for samples BY-A1, BY-A3 and BY-A4 which were degraded with sample BY-A2 separate and slightly degraded. Results from this study revealed that the spilled oil was derived from mixed organic sources deposited in an oxic environment with different oil input from external sources showing more terrestrial contribution.

Open Access Review Article

Vibrio cholerae Incursion in Africa, the Journey So Far

Tarh, Jacqueline Ebob, C. I. Mboto, B. E. E. Asikong, Iroegbu Christian Ukwuoma

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i3-430181

Indeed, a host of the plenty of reports about pathogenic Vibrios, have been from African researchers. And they assert that this severe diarrhea causing agent originated from Asia thousands of years ago and spread (first, via the sea route) affecting particularly the coastal towns and fishing villages, before moving to other parts of the world. Following the primary cholera outbreak of 1868, Vibrio cholera, appeared in the Atlantic coast of West Africa. The pathogen then invaded African countries chronologically beginning with Guinea, then Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cote d’ivoire, Mali, Togo, Dahomey, Upper Volt (Burki Na-faso) and finally Nigeria (Lagos) and Niger in December, 1970. Various serogroups (O139 and O1 with biotypes Classical and El Tor) and Serotypes of O1 (Ogawa, Inaba and Hikojima) and recently, the O395 strain have been reported; especially from outbreaks reported from hotspots that are close to riverine areas. This suggests that these emergent pathogenic species originate from around water environments probably from the non-pathogenic strains. This condition is likely harnessed by Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT), which is seen to occur usually between pandemic V. cholerae and environmental strains; a situation that may result in the creation of new pandemic strains. Therefore, in order to better understand and appreciate the evolution of the Vibrio cholerae strains that are involved in epidemics, and the relationship between the species causing particular epidemics in different regions of Africa, a study of the molecular picture of the environmental strains and the mechanisms by which the pathogenic Vibrio cholera strains appear and diffuse from these strains is necessary. This review seeks to trace the origin and spread route of Vibrio cholerae strains causing epidemics in different regions of the African continent (Nigeria in particular) with the aim of establishing relationships between the strains causing epidemics in these regions. This will help in the development of better intervention strategies to contain the disease.