Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Relationship between Technical Efficiency and Climate Change Manifestations among Sesame Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria

B. C. Asogwa, M. P. Nwalem, G. C. Aye

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i230184

The present study aims to analyse the relationship between technical efficiency and the adverse effect of climate change manifestations among sesame farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. A combination of purposive and random sampling techniques was used to select 372 sesame producers. Data were analysed by using the Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production function and Spearman correlation. The stochastic production function showed that farm size, seed, fertilizer, agrochemical and family labour significantly affect sesame output. The study also showed that education, farming experience, household size, access to extension; access to credit, access to market and membership to farmer association were positively related to technical efficiency of sesame farmers. The result further showed that the average technical efficiency of sesame farmers was 0.53. The result also revealed that there is a significant negative relationship between the level of adverse effects of climate change manifestation and technical efficiency among sesame farmers in the study area. It was therefore recommended that readily available farming inputs and subsidies should be entrenched. Credit facility, extension services and good market access should be provided to farmers. Education, information and training of farmers to adapt to climate change by changing their farming practices such as bush burning, de-forestation, rain-fed agriculture and land tenure systems should be encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Alterations and Hydrocarbon Characteristics of Kom-Kom Oil Spill Soils

I. M. Onyejekwe, L. C. Osuji, E. O. Nwaichi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i230185

Aims: The aim of this study is to find the alterations that occurred in the physico-chemical properties and the hydrocarbon content on the crude oil impacted soil in Kom-Kom, Oyigbo, Rivers State Niger Delta, Nigeria.

Study Design: The objectives included to evaluate the physico-chemical parameters of the spilled soil, determine the hydrocarbon content and that of some selected heavy metals. This will help create a baseline data on the environmental status of the area.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out after an oil spill occurred in Feburary, 2018 at Kom-Kom, Oyigbo, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Methodology: The soil samples were obtained randomly at 30cm depth using soil auger from three plots: PA and PB being the plots around the oil spill impacted area and PC being the control area which is about 200m away. Laboratory analyses were carried out on the Physicochemical Parameters (pH, Electric Conductivity, Potassium (K), Phosphate (P), Nitrate (N)); Organics (Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC), Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC)) and Heavy Metals (Iron (PB), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Vanadium (V)). The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and One-Way ANOVA.

Results: pH, K and P values were all significantly different from their respective control values (p ≤0.05). All organic parameters were also significantly different from the control values (p ≤0.05). For heavy metals, only Cr and V values were significantly different in all study sites (p ≤0.05). This study shows that crude oil spill alters the physicochemical attributes of the soil and could significantly affect soil fertility as the people of Kom-Kom are mostly farmers and traders.

Conclusion: With these levels of alteration, this study will serve as a resourceful data source for soil studies in Kom Kom. In order to achieve the third sustainable development goal (SDG) which is to have good health and well-being of people, we recommend immediate and proper clean up using bioremediation approaches as a cheap, eco-friendly and an environmentally sustainable process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Occupational Health and Infection Control Practices in Some Federal Medical Centers (FMCs) in Southern Nigeria

O. T. Allen, I. L. Nwaogazie, K. Douglas

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i230186

The hospital is a high risk environment for the transmission of infections to health care workers, visitors, patients and the surrounding community. Healthcare workers are exposed to a variety of hazards which predisposes these “indispensable carers” to various life threatening infections and diseases. This study is aimed at evaluating the occupational hygiene and infection control practices in Federal Medical Center (FMC) Owerri and FMC Yenayoa, both located within southern Nigeria. Descriptive cross sectional study using a structured questionnaire and walk-through safety checklist was employed. A total of 379 healthcare workers were selected through disproportionate stratified sampling from the two facilities. The questionnaires were self-administered and analyzed using SPSS Version 22.0. Frequencies, chi-square were computed and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predisposing factors to which health workers are exposed; 60.7% of respondents were male, dominant age group; 30 – 39yrs, nurses represented a larger proportion (34.8%) of healthcare workers in this study; 51.7% and 48.3% of respondents in FMC Yenagoa and FMC Owerri respectively had a good knowledge of hazards and controls. There was a significant difference with chi-square as, 9.710 p-Value <0.008. Good level of attitude was 44.7% in Owerri and 21.2% in Yenagoa, chi-square 18.295 p-Value <0.001. Overall level of occupational hygiene and infection control practices was poor in both facilities. Health care workers had a very high level of exposure to ergonomic hazards (88.9%) and biological hazards 47.6% in Owerri and 55.3% in Yenagoa. Nurses were 5 times more at risk of ergonomic hazards (95%CI) – 5.96 (2.19–16.24)  p-Value < 0.001, while Medical Laboratory scientists were 5 times more at risk of chemical hazards (OR = 5.98, 95CI: 3.05–11.69, p-Value <0.001). The checklist revealed that both facilities were of imminent high risk category. Health care workers at FMC Yenagoa had higher exposures to all five categories of hazards than FMC Owerri. Working in FMC Owerri predisposes workers to higher health hazards than in FMC Yenagoa. There was better administrative controls including trainings and immunizations in FMC Yenagoa than in FMC Owerri.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Particle Pollution in Residential Urban Area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Christopher U. Onuorah, T. G. Leton, O. L. Y. Momoh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i230187

Particle pollution poses serious public health concern because of its potential to find its route into human lungs thereby causing respiratory diseases and cancer. This paper analyses various aspect of particulate matter including seasonal variation, Particulate matter based AQI, particulate matter exceedances and empirical modelling for seasonal prediction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration. The study was carried out in Woji, a residential urban area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between May and December 2018. The Particulate matter concentrations were monitored with particulate monitor while meteorological variables were also monitored with Misol weather station. The 24-hour average PM10 concentration for dry and wet seasons were 139.6 μg/m³ and 97 μg/m³ respectively. These concentrations are below USEPA 24-hr standard (PM10 = 150 μg/m³) while the 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations of 46.1μg/m³ for dry season exceeded daily limit (PM2.5 = 35 μg/m³) but was below the limit in wet season with concentration of 29.1 μg/m³. The study area experienced daily PM2.5 and PM10 exceedances of 33.3% and 19.7% respectively for the study period. Also, the PM based AQI were unhealthy to all residents for 13%, unhealthy to the sensitive group for 20%, moderate for 62% and good for 5% of the monitoring period. PM2.5 and PM10 pollution prediction model were developed for dry and wet season with a high correlation coefficient of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively at (P < 0.001).The seasonal variation of PM concentration revealed that PM10 and PM2.5 concentration varied from season to season, with significantly higher concentration in dry season than in wet season. The air quality of Woji Port Harcourt was better in wet season than in dry season due to the scavenging mechanism of rainfall. Also, PM exceedances were higher in dry season than wet season due to high atmospheric stability associated with low wind speed in dry season.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Analysis on Maritime Disaster Management between Korea and Sweden

Lock Namkung

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i230188

The purpose of this study is to illustrate the importance of crisis management planning and effective governance by comparing and analysing cases related to crisis management in disasters. Firstly, this study analyses the sinking of the MV Sewol of Korea, one of the worst ship accidents in the world, and criticise the crisis management plan. It also applies relevant methodologies to identify how to manage incidents and how to perform them for better management. Secondly, this analyses the sinking accident and crisis management plan of MS Estonia in Sweden which is one of the worst ship accident in the world. As a result, MS Estonia disaster triggered improvements in safety policies in Sweden.

This study argues that Korean government can learn important lessons from Sweden to avoid the "vicious cycle" that exists in South Korea's policy decisions related to safety issues. Compared with the case in Sweden, this study suggests that further measures are needed to end the vicious circle of low safety standards and low confidence in Korea. Compared to the case in Sweden, a few policy recommendations are suggested in this study.