Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Diffraction in the Degree of Bitumen Penetration on Asphalt Mixture Used for Surface Layer

M. E. Basiouny, M. S. Eisa, A. M. Abdallah, A. A. Abd Algahny

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i430189

Objectives: This research discuss the simulation of the bad bitumen which gives a penetration out of the specification limit and Study the effect of crumb rubber on the performance of asphalt mixture in case of low penetration grade and waste cooking oil in case of high penetration grade.

Presentation of Case: Determination of the permissible limits of the diffraction in the degree of penetration for Suez Bitumen and Alexandria bitumen.

Methodology: 14 asphalt mixtures are designed by using two types of bitumen (Alexandria bitumen and Suez bitumen). By using crumb rubber powder (C.R.P) with contents (6%, 8% and 10%) to decrease penetration for Alex bitumen by (59, 56 and 53) respectively. Then  (-C.R.P-) was added with ratios (5%, 6.5% and 8%) to decrease penetration for Suez bitumen by (59, 56 and 53) respectively. after that waste cooking oil was added with different percentages (0.3%, 0.5% and 1%) for each bitumen type to increase penetration by (71, 74 and 77) respectively.  Marshall Test was implemented for all asphalt mixtures to determine stability value and flow. The ITS Test was performed for all mixtures to determine tensile properties for mixtures.

Results: The results were showed important conclusions for using bitumen with penetration grades (60/70) with increase or decrease in penetration by 7. 

Conclusion: This study recommends using (C.R.P) with ratios (10% and 5%) from bitumen weight for Alex and Suez bitumen respectively for achieving 53, 59 penetration to obtain 29% increase of stability value and  23.64% for Alex and Suez bitumen mixture  respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Automobile Digital Tire Pressure Detector

Yunyu Cao, Jinjin Dang, Chenxu Cao

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i430190

According to vast statistics, more than half of traffic accidents are related to the failure of car tire pressure. This paper investigated the design scheme of the existing tire pressure monitoring system, then selected the appropriate sensor, converted the tire pressure signal into the corresponding voltage signal and outputed it. Finally displayed the measurement result by the digital display tube. The main problem to be solved is that selecting a suitable pressure sensor requires accurate measurement of the required pressure parameters; completing the conversion of the analog signal and the digital signal; setting an appropriate threshold value. When the value is exceeded, the audible and visual alarm signal is emitted. This design adopted the design scheme of direct tire pressure monitoring system. Firstly, the circuit diagram is designed in the Altium desigener software environment and the corresponding simulation experiment is completed. Then, according to a successful experimental scheme, the PCB circuit board is processed to complete the welding of the physical object. At the same time, writing the running program in the C language environment and use Keil software to burn the program into the single-chip microcomputer. Finally, the debugging and modification of the physical object of the single-chip microcomputer completed the expected function.

Open Access Original Research Article

Designing Institutional Arrangements for Collaborative Governance of Forests in Kenya Using a Delphi Process

Felix Lamech Mogambi Ming’ate, Sammy Letema, Kennedy Obiero

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i430191

The focus of the study is to examine the institutional arrangement for forests governance in Kenya to understand the important design issues that can improve their performance in the delivery of sustainable livelihoods and conserve forests as they have been previously regarded as problematic. The study uses the Delphi technique to assemble information from 46 experts with vast experience in collaborative governance of forests in developing countries. The researchers then developed four questions which were asked across all the study experts. In the second round, all the expert responded to the four open-ended questions and all the qualitative results were analyzed manually by grouping them into interquartile ranges and only those issues that were above the 75th interquartile range were retained.  In the subsequent third round of the Delphi technique the experts gave their answers, the responses were collated and returned to each respondent who then was invited to revise his/her estimates or to specify the reasons for remaining outside the consensus. In the fourth and final round, again, the responses were assembled and reported back to the participants to justify his/her position, whether or not he wishes to change his/her position. The results show that the Delphi technique has the potential for studying institutional design for collaborative governance of forests.  The study recommends that the important issues identified can be used to help in the formulation of collaborative governance institutional design policies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Marijuana Abuse among Male Nepalese College Students in Bangalore

Sanjaya Regmi, Ashok Pandey, Pramod Chaudhary, Ashraya Acharya

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i430192

Over the past few years, the topic of marijuana is featured in the media. Students have an ambiguous information on the medical benefits and the torment of marijuana use. Students under minimum supervision from their guardians are among high risk groups of its abuse. The abuse of marijuana among students is associated with the cognitive impairment, adverse academic performance and the low-level satisfaction of life.

Aims: To find out the prevalence of marijuana abuse among college students staying away from their parents.

Place and Duration of Study:  Sample: 10 colleges from 5 wards of BBMP between February 2014 to February 2015.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey (n=250). Qualitative (interview) and quantitative (structured questionnaire) were used to collect the data about the current use of marijuana, smoking habit, perceived effect and source of supply among Nepalese students studying in Bangalore. The Current user is defined according to the CDC guideline (An adult who has smoked 100 times in his lifetime and who currently smokes marijuana.

Findings: The current prevalence of marijuana abuse among male Nepalese students in Bangalore is 36%. At least one-time usage of marijuana is 51%. Among current users, 38% are using marijuana daily. Similarly, 37% of the participants reported that local friends are the source of supply for them and 32% reported that they get marijuana from college friends. Among current users, about 58% of the users said that they don’t want to quit using marijuana.

Conclusion: It is evident from the study that marijuana use is widespread amongst Nepalese students in Bangalore. The parents whose children are away from home town should maintain a very close relationship with them, their academic supervisors, and their friends. A significant number of current users (41%) wish to quit the addiction of marijuana use, this demand an immediate need for the mental health counselor in the colleges in Bangalore.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Effect of Toluene in Wistar Rats

Victoria C. Obinna, Gabriel O. Agu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i430193

Toxicity of toluene arising from solvent abuse, occupation hazards and environmental pollution has generated a lot of concern in recent times. Young people are getting more involved in the abuse of toluene by deliberate inhalation of toluene-containing substances which may result in high level of exposure to toluene. This abuse may have adverse effect on their health. This study was therefore designed to investigate the effect of oral exposure to toluene on haematological parameters using male albino rats as model. Twenty animals were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 5 rats each. Group A (Control) received 0.5 ml of olive oil (vehicle) while groups B, C and D received 31.8, 63.6 and 127.2 mg/kg respectively of toluene for 21 days by oral gavage. At the end of the treatments, the animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were collected for haematological investigations. No significant (p >0.05) variation occurred in the mean values of PCV, haemoglobin concentration, RBC and platelet counts in comparison with the control. There was a significant (p <0.05) increase in total WBC and lymphocyte counts with a higher increase (p<0.01) in total neutrophil count.  No significant (p >0.05) change in the total monocyte and eosinophil counts relative to the control. Oral administration of toluene as used in this study may be toxic to health depending on the dose and duration of exposure.