Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Soil Quality in Parts of Israel and Nigeria

T. J. K. Ideriah

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i530194

The levels of physiochemical parameters and some heavy metals in top soil and sediment from parts of Israel and Nigeria were determined using standard methods and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer by GBC Avanta Version 2.02. The results showed ranges of mean levels of pH 5.78±0.4 – 8.08±0.001 in Israel and 5.3±0.1 – 6.70±0.2 in Nigeria; Organic matter 0.04±0.09% - 13.49±0.03% in Israel and 1.10±0.7% – 2.69±0.9% in Nigeria; Total Nitrogen 0.03±0.01% - 0.96±0.1% in Israel and 0.05±0.7% - 0.14±0.2% in Nigeria; Available Phosphorus 1.40±0.06 ppm – 70.18±0.06 ppm in Israel and 14±0.1 ppm – 64.6±0.2 ppm in Nigeria; Potassium 0.64±0.6 meq/100 g – 5.74±0.02 meq/100 g in Israel and 0.07±0.05 meq/100 g – 0.08±0.04 meq/100 g in Nigeria. The highest C/N ratios were 65.25 and 53.67 in Israel and 13.89 and 12.80 in Nigeria which implies high decomposition and mineralization in Nigeria. The levels of all the heavy metals were below their standard limits. The mean levels of physicochemical parameters of soils from Israel and Nigeria showed significant difference (p<0.05). The soil metal index of the heavy metals ranged from 0.013 – 0.070 in Israel and 0.004 – 0.058 in Nigeria. Cadmium was found to be the heavy metal with highest enrichment factor value of 87.871 in Israel and 5853.66 in Nigeria. The soils from Israel were found to be alkaline while those from Nigeria were acidic, nutrient deficient and need application of land amendment materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Analysis of Local Content Policies in the North Sea and the Gulf of Guinea Regions

Kwadwo Ayeh Obiri, Bassam Bjeirmi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i530195

Most resource-rich countries in Africa are introducing or reinforcing Local Content Policies (LCPs) and regulations to propel socio-economic development since its introduction in the North Sea. Local content is now a prerequisite for granting exploration license to international oil companies (IOCs) and suppliers in the Gulf of Guinea region (GGR). The paper analyses and compares LCPs - successes and impediments factors - from two perspectives: the North Sea – Norway, UK, and Denmark; and the Gulf of Guinea – Angola, Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia and Equatorial Guinea to glean policy lessons for the Gulf of Guinea countries. The study of the comparator countries found that the policy implementation in the GGR is constrained, inter alia by inadequate infrastructure, industrial base and supplier base, technical and financial capacity of domestic firms and weak regulatory institutions. Also, the LC policy is overly ambitious and prescriptive which ignores the GGR’s state of industrial development. To engineer resource-based development in the GGR these countries must move beyond its preoccupation with local content regulations to addressing the above challenges conducive for the development of linkages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hearing Disorders among HIV Positive Children at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Charles Medo Vincent, Nsirimobu Ichendu Paul

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i530196

Background: Use of antiretroviral drugs (ART) has changed the epidemiology of HIV disease, making it a chronic illness and with many people developing long term sequelae of the disease such as hearing loss. This study compared hearing disorders, its types and severity among children with and without HIV disease.

Methods: This was a hospital based comparative cross-sectional study carried out among eligible patients who were HIV positive, aged 6 to 15 years recruited via systematic sampling method and matched by age and sex with HIV negative controls. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to extract the sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects, patients/caregivers awareness of hearing impairment and to document the otoscopic, Pure tone audiometry (PTA) and tympanometry findings performed on the patients. CD4 count was done for all the study participants while all HIV positive patients were graded for severity using WHO clinical Staging. Obtained data was analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 22. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 400 children aged 6 years to 15 years were recruited for the study out of which 200 were HIV positive (cases), while 200 were HIV negative (controls). Otitis media with effusion, otitis media and perforated tympanic membrane were the predominant tympanometry and otoscopic findings.  Seventy-three (36.5%) of the HIV positive patients had hearing loss compared to 19(9.5%) of HIV negative patients and this was statistically significant (X2 = 41.1; p = 0.0001). Majority (95.9%) of persons with hearing loss had the conductive type and of mild degree 53 (72.6%). Only 3(4.1%) caregivers of the HIV positive children and 1 (5.6%) caregiver of the HIV negative children were aware of the hearing impairment in their children but none had complained to their primary health caregivers.

Conclusion: This study has established a higher rate of hearing loss, of the conductive type and of mild degree among HIV positive patient. It is necessary to assess and monitor the hearing in HIV positive children by conducting interval PTA testing and Tympanometry to ensure timely intervention since parental awareness is poor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Caregivers/Patients Perception and Satisfaction with Outpatient HIV Services at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Nsirimobu Ichendu Paul, Rosemary Ogochukwu Ugwu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i530197

Background: Patient perception and satisfaction is an indicator used to evaluate the quality of healthcare. This study aimed to assess patients’/caregivers’ perception and satisfaction with outpatient HIV services.

Methodology: This was a cross sectional study carried out at the Paediatric HIV clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Purposive and convenient sampling methods were used to recruit 152 out patients just before they exit the outpatient department (OPD). Exit interviews were conducted with a three-point Likert scale using a Pretested self-administered questionnaire. Participation was voluntary and consent was obtained from all participants. Obtained data was analysed using epi info version 7, Chi-square test was used to test the association between the overall satisfaction level and sociodemographic characteristics of the patients. Statistical significance for the chi-square test was set at p< 0 .05.

Results: A total of 152 caregivers/patients participated in the study, only 31 (20.4%) were patients, aged 15-18years, 77 (50.7%) were aged from 26 and 41 years, 111(73%) were females, 99 (65.1%) were married and 76(50.0% had secondary level of education. Majority of the patients (130, 85.53%) were satisfied with the provider interpersonal skills followed by the physical environment at the OPD (118, 77.63%). However, only 53.29% were satisfied with the waiting and consulting time. The overall satisfaction rate was 73. 68% based on the three domains measured. The results showed a statistically significant association between the overall level of satisfaction and the female gender (X2= 4.67, p = 0.0306) and those with tertiary educational level (X2= 14.48, p= 0.0001) of the patients/caregivers.

Conclusion: The level of satisfaction with outpatient HIV services at the UPTH is high. Program managers review of patients’ appointment time and use of electronic consultation tool will reduce the consulting and waiting time and further improve patient’s satisfaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Cranial and External Morphology of Tree Squirrels (Funiscurus leucogenys) in Selected Locations of Rainforest in Nigeria

A. O. Bamidele, A. I. Akinpelu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i530198

This study looked at the differences in cranial morphology of tree squirrel species (F. leucogenys) from four different locations in Rainforest part of Nigeria. The squirrels were captured through the use of locally fabricated live traps made of wire-mesh and steel. Trapped specimens were immediately transferred to the laboratory in captivity cages, where they were euthanized in a bell-jar containing chloroform-soaked cotton wool. Specimens were then preliminarily identified to the generic level, using an identification key. The skull of 131 tree squirrels were prepared using Long Island Natural History Museum guide and the sex of the specimens was determined by visual inspection of the external genitalia. The skull and other body parameters were measured using digital venier caliper. The results showed that the body parameters (HBL, TL, TBL, EL, HFL and BW) measured were slightly different from one location to another. Also, the cranial measure showed some similarities among some locations (Ile-Ife, Emure-Ekiti and Ado-Ekiti), while measurement on squirrels from Sekona was different from other three locations. In conclusion, the cranial measurements of the tree squirrels shows there was no new species of F. leucogeny from the sampled locations.