Open Access Original Research Article

Motives of Willingness to Buy Organic Food under the Moderating Role of Consumer Awareness

Zohra Ghali

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i630200

Aims: The present paper aims to study a set of motives favoring the consumer willingness to               buy organic food in the context of developing market (Tunisia). This study also endeavors to examine the moderating role of awareness in the relationships between willingness to buy and its motives.

Place and Duration of Study: This research work was developed from May to December 2019. The hypotheses were tested in a developing country (Tunisia).

Methodology: To test the research hypotheses as well as the overall model fit, the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) method has been used. A survey was conducted from 16 June to 31 August of 2019 in several supermarkets and organic grocery shops in Tunisia.

Results: The findings of a quantitative study involving 480 Tunisian consumers of organic food products indicate that health consciousness and knowledge of organic food are significant drivers of willingness to buy. The intensity of these relationships is positively moderated by awareness. However, concern for the environment did not prove to exert any significant influence on willingness to buy.

Conclusion: This study provides interesting managerial guidelines for policymakers to switch to organic farming that is beneficial for health and environment. It also allows significant insights for marketers to formulate an effective marketing strategy through exploring some crucial drivers of willingness to buy organic food while enhancing the consumers’ awareness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in the Activities of Alpha and Gluco-amylases during Malting of Some Improved Nigerian Sorghum Varieties

Chukwudi I. Nnamchi, Chukwunweike O. Okoye, Arinze L. Ezugwu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i630201

In this study changes in the alpha and glucoamylase activities of four different improved sorghum varieties were monitored over a 96-hour malting time to determine how the expression of the enzymes were affected by malting. Preliminary tests showed that SK5912 had the highest weight of 40 g/1000 grains and lowest malting loss of about 13%, while KSV 8 followed a weight of 36 g/1000 grains and the most malting loss of 22.6%. Enzyme results showed that the different sorghum varieties differed in their expression of the two of them across different malting regimes. However, all the varieties showed much higher expressions of glucoamylase than α-amylase at all the malting regime. Glucoamylase consistently showed its highest activities of over 71 U/ml across the four sorghum varieties after the first day of germination with variety SRNA giving the highest value slightly above 72 U/ml. The least glucoamylase activities were also given consistently across the four varieties by the unmalted raw grain. The highest α-amylase activities were generally shown across the four varieties after the third day of germination, with variety KSV 8 showing the highest value of about 14 U/ml. The control also gave the least α-amylase activities across all varieties with KSV8 giving the least. Considering the many important and multi-faceted roles that amylases are nowadays known to perform, the study of their expression dynamics in different plants and processes, one of which we report here, could help further the understanding of their characteristics and thus facilitate their maximal utilization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Performance, Response and Efficient Use of Potassium in Genotypes Corn (Zea mays)

Weder Ferreira dos Santos, Fernando Assis de Assunção, Layanni Ferreira Sodré, Lucas Carneiro Maciel, Magno De Oliveira, Hélio Bandeira Barros, Rubens Ribeiro da Silva, Joênes Mucci Peluzio, Adriano Silveira Barbosa, Talita Pereira de Souza Ferreira

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i630202

The study aims to select maize for the response and efficiency of the use of potassium (K), in the municipality of Gurupi, state of Tocantins. Two trials of maize genotypes were carried out in Gurupi-TO, in the off-season 2017, one for high K condition and another for K low, applied in coverage. The experimental design of each experiment was a randomized block design with three replicates and seven treatments. The average grain production BK (6997 kg ha−1) was                     lower than the AK (7787 kg ha−1), which confirms that the application of potassium fertilizers in maize makes this answer the applications collaborating with better yields. The genotype               (G3) showed that high yield in BK environment (above the average, 4532 kg ha−1) and low response rate application of paragraph, they are defined as efficient, unresponsive. The genotype G2 was classified as efficient and responsive being indicated for producers of both technological levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

On A Shape Parameter of Gompertz Inverse Exponential Distribution Using Classical and Non Classical Methods of Estimation

Terna Godfrey Ieren, Adana’a Felix Chama, Olateju Alao Bamigbala, Jerry Joel, Felix M. Kromtit, Innocent Boyle Eraikhuemen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i630203

The Gompertz inverse exponential distribution is a three-parameter lifetime model with greater flexibility and performance for analyzing real life data. It has one scale parameter and two shape parameters responsible for the flexibility of the distribution. Despite the importance and necessity of parameter estimation in model fitting and application, it has not been established that a particular estimation method is better for any of these three parameters of the Gompertz inverse exponential distribution. This article focuses on the development of Bayesian estimators for a shape of the Gompertz inverse exponential distribution using two non-informative prior distributions (Jeffery and Uniform) and one informative prior distribution (Gamma prior) under Square error loss function (SELF), Quadratic loss function (QLF) and Precautionary loss function (PLF). These results are compared with the maximum likelihood counterpart using Monte Carlo simulations. Our results indicate that Bayesian estimators under Quadratic loss function (QLF) with any of the three prior distributions provide the smallest mean square error for all sample sizes and different values of parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Income Inequality, Structure and Conduct of Cocoa Marketers in Osun State, Nigeria

A. I. Olutumise, L. O. Oparinde, O. O. Simon-Oke

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i630204

The level of income inequality and structure-conduct of cocoa marketers were evaluated in Osun State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire, while a multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Descriptive statistics, concentration ratio, Gini coefficient, index of dissimilarity, Herfindahl index; Ordinary Least Square (OLS) as well as Quantile Regression (QR) were used as analytical tools. The result showed the value of Gini coefficient as 0.76, which established a relatively high level of income inequality among cocoa marketers in the study area. The concentration ratio of one, two and four largest marketers in the cocoa marketing business also accounted for 19.2%, 31.9% and 45.8% respectively, of the total volume of cocoa beans sold in the study area, while the value (0.069) of the Herfindahl index further confirmed the presence of low concentration in the market share of cocoa marketers in the study area. The OLS result revealed that household size, education, access to credit, depreciation cost on fixed inputs and labour cost constituted the main factors affecting the income of the marketers, while depreciation cost on fixed inputs and labour cost were consistently significant in OLS and across the conditional quantiles (q25, q50 and q75). Therefore, it is expected that appropriate practical approach in addressing high level of income inequality as identified by the study should be taken by all stakeholders in the industry, with a view to making low-interest credit facilities and incentives available to the marketers in order to increase their scale of operations, and consequently bridge the inequality gap.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Serum Calcium, Phosphorus and Iron Level of Selected Elderly

Varsha Zanvar, Madhuri Revanwar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i630205

For present study total 600 elderly were randomly selected from urban (200), rural (200), and tribal (200) areas from Nanded district of Maharashtra state of India. Information of socio economic status of elderly population was collected with the help of interview schedule and discussion. While biochemical estimations like serum calcium, phosphorus and haemoglobin content of blood was carried out for 10 percent rural (20) and urban (20) elderly with standard procedures. Result stated that, 75 percent elderly were belonging to age group of 60 to 70 years and 25 percent were above 70 years. Among selected elderly, 53.5 percent were female and 46.5 percent were male. Serum calcium of selected elderly subjects, ranged from 8.6±00 to 9.45±0.83. The range of serum phosphorus was 2.78±0.39 to 3.70±0.90. While haemoglobin content of blood of selected elderly ranged from 7.9±00 to 9.73±2.52.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Critical Evaluation of Natural Gas-water Formula Correlations

V. J. Aimikhe, M. A. Adeyemi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2019/v25i630206

The performance evaluation of fourteen (14) formula correlations for predicting the water content of natural gas in equilibrium with water, and the suitability of some of these correlations in predicting the water content of natural gas in equilibrium with hydrates, has been presented. Also presented was an evaluation of acid gas and gravity correction factor correlations. The evaluation was achieved by using the cubic plus association equation of state - CPA EoS, published experimental water content data from a tuneable diode laser adsorption spectrometer, and data from the gas processors supplier’s association (GPSA) chart, to validate the results of the correlations. The results of the validation showed that for the prediction of the water content of natural gas in equilibrium with water, the Bukacek correlation was best suited for low pressures of 1 and 2.5 MPa at a temperature range of 9 to 58°C. The modified ideal model (MIM) correlation was the best for pressures of 5 and 10 MPa, at temperature range of 30 to 89.6°C The Aimikhe correlation was best suited for pressures of 7.5 MPa, at a temperature range of 30 to 86°C, while the Khaled’s correlation performed better for high pressures of 25 and 50 MPa, at a temperature range of 30 to 91.5°C. The Maddox correction factor had better accuracy than other acid gas correction factors when accounting for the presence of acid gases. The Mohammadi or Chapoy gravity correction factors were the best correlations for accounting for the presence of heavy components in natural gas. For processed methane-rich natural gas in equilibrium with hydrates at a temperature range of -20 to 10°C, the Lin correlation was best suited for pressures of 2.5 and 5 MPa while the MIM correlation performed better at pressures of 7.5, 15 and 20 MPa.