Open Access Short Research Article

Technical Terms and Processes: A Case for Transliteration

Grami Mohammad A. Grami, Hamza Alshenqeeti

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 32-35
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130211

This literature review article looks into the practice of finding literal translations in the target language for each and every technical term and process in the source language, even if the equivalents are not intelligible to the readers. This practice is evident in many translated textbooks in highly technical majors including IT, engineering and medicine. The paper suggests a hybrid model of translation by employing transliteration (Arabicisation) as well as traditional translation. In other words, known terms and processes should be treated as proper nouns rather than lexical items and subsequently referring to the entities as sounds rather than meanings. This process makes a translated text easier to comprehend, keeps the intended meaning as accurate as possible and saves translators time finding awkward and pointless equivalents in the target language.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status and Distribution of Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in the South Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

M. Yogeshwari, K. Varunprasath

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130207

The Indian Peafowls (Pavo crisatus) is Least Concern (LC) category on Red list and Schedule I species as per Wildlife Protection Act (1972) in India.  Indian Peafowl (Pavo crisatus) population status and distribution was studied in South Coimbatore district especially in Polllachi area from August 2017 to January 2018.  The study carried out in 13 villages in South Coimbatore including Nchavelampalayam, Chandrapuram, Kollupalayam, Chellampalayam, Marampudungigoundanur, Athanaripalayam, Kotturmalayandipattinam, Vallakundapuram, Vedasanthur, Kanchampalayam, Sangampalayam, Angalankuruchi, Paramadaiyur Village etc. From the present study, 405 direct sighting consists of 1283 Peafowls in 13 villages were recorded. Based on the Group wise of Peafowls showed that Mixed group(MIG) contain 50.37% followed by Male female group(MFG) stand for 40.74%, Female chick group(FCG) contains 4.19%, Female group(FG) with the percentage of 3.95%, and Male group(MG) which constitute of 0.74% were recorded. Based on Peafowls classification, Females Peafowls consist of 59.85% followed by 17.77% of Peacock, 13.09% Peafowls chicks, 9.27% sub adults Peafowls were observed. According to the Peafowls habitat, the study area categorized into mixed forest (MFL) habitat, Agricultural Land (AL) and Coconut farmland (CFL). Maximum of Peafowls observed in Coconut farmland (CFL) comprised of 44.33% followed by the mixed forest land (MFL) habitat consists of 36.20% and very low in Agricultural Land (AL) 19.45% of Peafowls were occupied. As a result of habitat thrashing, absence of predation and easy accessibility of food, climate change influence of Peafowls interested in countryside villages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Promotion of Low-cost Package of Technologies for Drudgery Mitigation in Turmeric Production System

J. P. Zend, M. S. Revanwar, S. S. Gaikwad

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130208

Major role of farm women in the turmeric production system in Marathwada region was found to be in planting rhizomes, weeding, harvesting and cleaning activities. Ploughing, forming ridges, irrigation are performed solely by male farmers. Whereas participation of farm women in earthing up activity was 85 per cent, it was followed by fertilizer application (83%). Majority of the activities such as planting, earthing up, harvesting in turmeric production system were performed manually. Data on time spent by the female workers in performing different activities in turmeric production system indicated that maximum time-consuming activity was hand weeding (84 man-days/ season)  followed by earthing up (63 man-days/ season) and cutting, sorting and cleaning roots (56 days/ season). As per the work demand score, all the activities performed in turmeric production system were very time demanding and very exhaustive as per the psychological feeling of the farm women. Earthing up is an important intercultural operation which is normally carried out twice or thrice during the crop season, accompanied by weeding and side dressing the crop with fertilizers. No tool or implement is used by farmers for earthing up activity. All the farmers were unaware of the hand-operated machines available for earthing up activity. After performing these activities continuously for 6 h, major health problems of the farm women reported were burning sensation to the skin, skin peeling and allergy. Hence, earthing up tool (Sawdi) small digging tool (Ukari), set of five finger guards (Nakhalya) for planting rhizomes, drying tool (wooden rake) (for making upside down while drying turmeric fingers), sulbha bag for fertilizer application, mittens for cleaning and sorting and new khurpi for weeding were developed and tested. The ergonomic assessment revealed that the physiological cost of selected activities performed by farm women in existing and improved method was same but the perception of workload was found to be reduced (13-32%) in an improved method. All the developed technologies used by farm women in the turmeric production system for planting, earthing up, fertilizer application and drying were successful in increasing space of work. In all these activities, the output was significantly increased by 10-26 per cent due to the use of developed technologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bayesian Modelling of Extreme Rainfall Data of Some Selected Locations in Nigeria

Olawale Basheer Akanbi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 16-26
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130209

Climate change occurs when there is rise in average surface temperature on earth, which is mostly due to the burning of fossil fuels usually by human activities. It has been known to contribute greatly to the occurrence of extreme storms and rainfall, this trend continues as the effect of climate change becomes more pronounced. Therefore, this study modelled the extreme rainfall data of three locations (Calabar, Ikeja, Edo) in Nigeria. The block maxima method was used to pick out the maximum rainfall data in each year to form annual maxima data set. The parameters [location, scale, shape] were estimated using both the Classical and Bayesian methods. The result shows that the Bayesian Informative approach is a very good procedure in modelling the Nigerian Extreme Rainfall data.

Open Access Original Research Article

Shelf Life of Millet Based Diabetic Mix

K. Geetha, Geetha M. Yankanchi, B. M. Veena, Netravati Hiremath

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 27-31
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130210

Millets are good source of nutrients such as fiber, minerals and b-complex vitamins and their regular consumption helps in reducing non communicable diseases. Hence, millets were used in the preparation of diabetic mix and a study was conducted to evaluate the shelf life of millet based diabetic mix.  Parameters such as moisture, free fatty acid, peroxide value and microbial load were assessed for a period of 90 days. Significant increase in moisture, free fatty acid and peroxide value was observed at different storage period, however free fatty acid and peroxide values were in the acceptable range. Bacterial count throughout the storage period was within the safe level, whereas presence of mold and E-coli was not detected during storage period. Above findings revealed that the developed diabetic mix can be stored up to 90 days.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of msp1, msp2 and eba175 Allelic Family According to Hemoglobin Genotype and G6PD Type from Children with Uncomplicated Malaria in Banfora Heath District (Burkina Faso)

Salif Sombié, Samuel Sindié Sermé, Aïssatou Diawara, Mame Massar Dieng, Amidou Diarra, Emilie S. Badoum, Sam Aboubacar Coulibaly, Noelie Henry/Béré, Wael Said Abdrabou, Aissata Barry, Désiré Kargougou, Alfred Sababeni Traoré, Alfred B. Tiono, Sodiomon Bienvenu Sirima, Youssef Idaghdour, Issiaka Soulama

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 36-47
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130212

Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity according to the host hemoglobin and G6PD genetic variants during the course of malaria in infected children aged from 2 to 10 years and living in endemic area in Burkina Faso.

Study Design: The study was designed as a longitudinal follow up conducted between May 2015 and February 2016 in Banfora health district, Burkina Faso.

Methodology: We included 136 subjects (73 males and 63 females; age range from 2-10 years). Blood thick and thin film was done by capillary blood. Venous blood was collected for DNA extraction. Malaria diagnosis was done by microscopy. Human and parasite DNA were extracted based on Qiagen kit procedure. Then, hemoglobin and G6PD were genotyped by RLFP-PCR while the msp1, msp2 and eba175 genes were typed by a nested PCR. All PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis on a 1.5-2% agarose gel and alleles categorized according to the molecular weight.

Results: The prevalence of hemoglobin type was 19.11% for abnormal hemoglobin and 80.9% for normal hemoglobin carriage. The prevalence of G6PD type was 91.18% for normal and 8.82% for G6PD deficiency carriage, respectively. The prevalence of msp1 allelic families was 81.60%, 80.80% and 67.20% for k1, ro33 and mad20 respectively while for msp2 gene, fc27 and 3D7 allelic family the prevalence was 70.53% and 69.64% respectively. The eba175 allelic families’ distribution showed 77.31% and 40.21% for fcr3 and Camp respectively. There was no difference in multiplicity of infection (MOI) according to hemoglobin genotypes and G6PD types. We found that k1 was the predominant allelic family of msp1 in normal hemoglobin genotype (AA) and normal G6PD type. The mixed infection of eba175 was statistically higher in abnormal hemoglobin (p=0.04). There was no statistical difference between fcr3 and camp prevalence excepted in G6PD deficient type. The polymorphism results showed that the prevalence of 450 bp in fc27 was statistically significantly higher in normal hemoglobin variant carriers (AA) than abnormal hemoglobin carriers (p=2.10 -4)). However, the prevalence of 350 bp in fc27 was statistically higher in normal G6PD than deficient G6PD carriers (p=0.034).

Conclusion: Our result showed that the distribution of msp1 and eba75 polymorphism could be influenced by hemoglobin and G6PD variants. These results suggest that hemoglobin and G6PD could influence P. falciparum genetic diversity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Construction of Densification Machine for Vegetables in Rural Settlements

J. K. Agunsoye, I. Abubakar, S. I. Ogijo, A. Zakariyah, S. A. Okaiyeto

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130213

This research work was carried out to improve the storage space and effective handling of dried vegetables specifically tomatoes, onion and okra, for consumers and marketers. The machine basically consists of an upper compression plate, machine mould, piston, lower compression plate and a 3-tons hydraulic jack. The machine performance was evaluated based on Output Capacity and Machine Compression Efficiency. The results showed that the machine output capacity and efficiency were 0.291 kg/h and 96.3%, respectively. The machine production cost stood at N35,000.00 only. The machine is therefore recommended to farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Demographic Transition in the Past and Projected Five Decades in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1967-2068: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

H. I. Eririogu, C. A. Okezie, E. S. Ebukiba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 56-71
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130214

Aims: This study assessed the demographic transition in the past and projected five decades in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1967-2068: Empirical evidence from Nigeria.

Study Design: Past and projected time series data (between 1967 and 2068) were used for the study. The 1967-2068 data sets were resorted to due to lack of complete national data.

Place and Duration of Study: Past (between 1967 and 2017) and projected (between 2018 and 2068) five decades in Nigeria.

Methodology: The time series data (1967 to 2068) obtained from the 1950-2099 Interpolated Demographic Data of the United Nations Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, on Births, Deaths and Population levels, were used for the study. The 1967-2068 data sets were resorted to due to lack of complete national data. Data collected were analyzed using birth and death rate indices, demographic transition index, growth rate equation and granger causality statistics. Unit root, co-integration and error correction tests were also carried out.

Results: Results showed that in the past five decades (1967-2017), the mean crude birth and death rates per 1,000 populations were 43.9 and 18.0 respectively; while that of the projected five decades (2018-2068) was 28.9 and 7.9 respectively per 1000 populations. The demographic indices showed that in the past five decades (between 1967 and 2017), Nigeria was at the second stage (stage II) of demographic transition and expected to remain at this stage in the next five decades (between 2018 and 2068). Results also showed that the population growth rate in the past five decades was 2.584 percent, while the growth rate in the next five decades as projected was 2.098 percent. The population growth rate (2.098 percent) in the next five decades (between 2018 and 2068 as projected) is expected to decrease by an average of 0.486 percent. Results also showed that there is a mutual link between demographic transition and population growth.

Conclusion: Nigeria is currently at the second stage of demographic transition and expected to remain at this stage (stage II) in the next five decades. Demographic transition increases the prediction of population growth and vice versa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Influence of E-marketing on Patronage Behaviour and Its Attendant Challenges: A Case Study of Selected Hotels in Ado–Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

S. J. Arohunsoro, O. O. Ojo, A. A. Shittu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 72-79
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130215

This paper evaluated the influence of E-marketing on patronage behaviour and its attendant challenges in some selected hotels. This study employed a descriptive survey research design. This research work employed the use of structured questionnaire that is closed ended. A total of 22 copies of questionnaire were administered in the research work to elicit information from the respondent. Purposive sampling was used to select 11 three star hotels in the study area. 2 Management staff was selected using purposive sampling technique from each of the 11 selected 3 star hotels in the study area. The data collected were analysed through the use of descriptive method of data analysis such as tables, percentage and charts. The study revealed that E-marketing saves time and increases patronage level, E-marketing enhances patronage increase, quality website improves customer patronage and online advertising improves patronage level. However, it was also revealed that some of the challenges facing E-marketing includes no centrally acceptable payment method, Unstructured Presentation of Information, E-Marketing advertisements are poor, E-Marketing internet domain are weak as well as poor sensitization frustrates E-marketing. The study concluded that E-marketing is an important strategy to capture patrons who are use to online booking system and enhancement of convenient booking for online patrons who are relatively far from the locations of the hotels. However, the study recommended that the use of E-Marketing among establishments especially in hotels should be encouraged in order to capture people from far locations who need reservations at their own convenient time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cardisoma guanhumi (Land Crab) Extract on Haematology and Lungs Histology in Swiss Mice Infected with Bordetella pertussis

I. O. Enyi, A. I. Hart, I. M. Siminialayi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 80-92
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130216

Pertussis is an acute human respiratory tract disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, a known international pathogen that affects infants, children and adults. This study is aimed at investigating the changes in haematological parameters and histopathological changes of the lungs connected with Bordetella pertussis infection in swiss mice and to evaluate the potential of Cardisoma guanhumi extract to reverse these adverse changes about erythromycin treatment. The animals were divided into five groups: Group 1 was normal to control, group 2 was infected with Bordetella pertussis without treatment (negative control), group 3 and 4 were Bordetella pertussis infected and treated with 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg of the extract respectively and group 5 were infected and treated with 4000 mg/70 kg of erythromycin in divided doses. The animals were inoculated with a single infectious dose of Bordetella pertussis bacteria and were consequently treated with the graded doses of the extract and erythromycin for eighteen days after the animals were confirmed infected. The mice were humanely sacrificed using diethyl ether anaesthesia and blood samples were taken for liver function investigation and liver tissue harvested and processed for histological examination. The result showed that Cardisoma guanhumi extract reversed the changes in the haematological parameters and pathological changes in the lungs of mice infected with Bordetella pertussis in a dose and time-dependent manner which suggests prophylactic and curative potentials of Cardisoma guanhumi extract against B. pertussis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interpretation of Depositional Environment of Rho Field Using Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis, Shallow Offshore Depobelt, Niger Delta

Okoli Emeka Austin, Acra Jones Edward, Ehirim Chukwuemeka Ngozi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 93-103
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130217

Candidate Maximum Flooding Surfaces (MFS) identified on Rho-1, Rho-2 and Rho-3 were the basis of correlation across the wells for sequence Stratigraphic analysis in the field. Three (3) candidate MFS which include MFS-1, MFS-2 and MFS-3 were identified using the method adopted by Okoli [1]. Erosional surfaces were also delineated in wells from the observed stacking pattern between a sequence from Galloway model (1989) leading to the correlation of SB-1 and SB-2 across the wells. Using the Galloway model, four (4) depositional sequences were inferred SEQ (1-4). In the first sequence (SEQ 1), deposition occurred in a transgressive episode. Depositional environment was interpreted from electrofacies and revealing stacked sequences of reservoirs predominantly composed of fluvial channels which incised the Upper and Lower Shorefaces on a delta front system. In SEQ 2, looking at the aggradational pattern of the sequence, the formed channels were under the influence of both tidal and fluvial systems. In SEQ 3 and 4, based on electro-facies, the stacked reservoir sands were deposited predominantly in a shoreface/delta front environment and channel incisions in a wave subjugated high energy deltaic setting.

The entire well section showed deposition in a regressive phase. Proposed conceptual models were generated using Petrel software and could be used as an input reconstruction of subsurface geological models. Indicating correct orientation of geo-bodies and facies belts (pinch outs of sands and shales), depositional dips and gross permeability architecture.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of the Extraction and Characterisation of Oils from Glycine max L. (Soya Bean Seed), Elaeis guineensis (Palm Kernel Seed) and Cocos nucifera (Coconut) Using Ethanol and n-Hexane

Okenwa-ani Chioma, Okafor Alexander, Kanayochukwu Ugochi, Anieze Erasmus, Egbujor Melford, Chidebelu Innocencia, Ugwu Joshua, Okoye Ifeanyi, Edenta Chidi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 104-112
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i130218

Aims: To extract and characterize oils from Glycine max L. (soya bean seed), Elaeis guineensis (palm kernel seed) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) using ethanol and n-Hexane.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Industrial Chemistry, Renaissance University, Ugbawka, between December 2017 and July 2018.

Methodology: Using Soxhlet extraction method, the milled seed samples (soya bean, coconut and palm kernel) were bagged and extracted with accurately measured quantity of each solvent (n-Hexane and Ethanol). Physicochemical analysis which includes: Acid values, iodine value, free fatty acid (% oleic) and saponification value was carried out on the extracted oil.

Results: The percentage oil yield from ethanol extracts were 8.58% (8.58 g), 26.01% (26.01 g) and 31.21% (31.21 g) for soya bean, coconut and palm kernel respectively while that of n-Hexane extracts were 14.69% (14.69 g), 31.85% (31.85 g) and 45.28% (45.28 g), due to the fact that 100 g of the milled sample was used. Free fatty acid values were the same in n-Hexane and ethanol extracts of soya bean oil. These values were slightly higher in the coconut and palm kernel oil extracts using ethanol. Acid values were observed to be slightly higher in the ethanol extracted oils. The Saponification values were generally higher in ethanol extracted oils than in hexane extracted oils. There was maximum oil recovered with hexane than ethanol when the extraction process was carried out for 120 minutes.

Conclusion: In spite of the fact that n-Hexane gave a better extraction yield, ethanol appeared to be a better alternative for the extraction process because it is green, less toxic and safer to handle.