Open Access Short Research Article

Primary Nutritional Guidance at Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Erica Mundin Karnal, Júlia Fabian, Liziane Cássia Carlesso, Jane Mary L. N. Gelinski

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530256

Aims: To propose a primary nutritional recommendation for patients in the early stage of SLE to contribute to a better quality of life for those affected by the disease.

Methodology: This is a theoretical study, with no direct approach or intervention to any patient. The research was carried out using a conceptual approach based on a narrative and explanatory literature review. The main key descriptors of health were: Lupus and skin lesions; butterfly wing or arthritis, nutrition and lupus. After that, a diet (with a menu) for primary nutritional guidance to patients with early symptoms was followed.

Results: The scientific literature evaluates that Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, autoimmune inflammatory disease, with no cure, which can have multiple causes (hormonal, infectious, genetic and environmental). The production of autoantibodies in tissues, generated from recognized apoptotic fragments, processed and associated with the Principal Human Histocompatibility Complex are also characteristic of SLE. In addition, SLE is mainly characterized by the involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys and serous membranes. The symptoms of SLE vary according to the stage of the disease, affecting different organs, tissues and, in more severe cases, the central and peripheral nervous system. The incidence of SLE is about ten times higher in females and affects more commonly Afro-American, Hispanic and Asian people. In addition, the individual's eating habits and nutritional status can influence the intensity and worsening of symptoms. Regarding nutritional guidance, it is of utmost importance to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant substances in the diet, avoiding the exaggeration of bad fats, refined carbohydrates, and proteins.

Conclusion: SLE patients should receive a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach, including follow-up by a nutritionist, who will prioritize the maintenance of the patient's adequate weight, avoiding overloading of his joints. This will contribute for a better quality of life for those affected.

Open Access Short Research Article

Sample Size Determination in Survey Research

Anokye M. Adam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 90-97
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530263

Obtaining a representative sample size remains critical to survey researchers because of its implication for cost, time and precision of the sample estimate. However, the difficulty of obtaining a good estimate of population variance coupled with insufficient skills in sampling theory impede the researchers’ ability to obtain an optimum sample in survey research. This paper proposes an adjustment to the margin of error in Yamane’s (1967) formula to make it applicable for use in determining optimum sample size for both continuous and categorical variables at all levels of confidence. A minimum sample size determination table is developed for use by researchers based on the adjusted formula developed in this paper.

Open Access Minireview Article

Control Measures on Groundwater Pollution through Leakages of Underground Storage Tanks of Filling Stations in Nigeria

Oluwaseun E. Odipe, Henry O. Sawyerr, Solomon O. Adewoye

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 98-105
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530264

Background: Groundwater pollution from leakages of Underground Storage Tanks is a global issue and has been significantly controlled and maintained by many developed countries in the last 30 years. The knowledge and practices used in containing this environmental issue can also be applied locally in Nigeria.

Methods: This paper reviewed the environmental policies and strategies put in place by the United States of America and the statutory regulations in Nigeria to identify the possible causes of pollution from leaking underground storage tanks within the country in order to recommend applicable preventive and control measures.

Results: Findings showed there are lots of regulations and laws to protect environmental resources in Nigeria which has led to establishment of different ministries, departments and agencies of government for implementation yet, a number of shortcomings can be traced to its inability to efficiently control leaking underground storage tanks in filling stations nationwide.

Conclusion: However, necessary recommendations were made which could be applied by implementing minor preventive measures and procedures that will significantly curb this menace as achieved in other developed nations of the world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Delayed Nutrient Conversion for a Single Species Periodic Chemostat

Jane Ireri, Ganesh Pokhariyal, Stephene Moindi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530255

In this paper we analyze a Chemostat model with periodic nutrient input modelled using Fourier series and incorporate delays in nutrient conversion. We show that both periodicity and delays have complementing influence in the long term behaviour of the species. Numerical results show that periodicity has bigger influence on species density variations for delays below the Hopf Bifurcation point, while for delays above the Bifurcation point,the delay effect is more influential.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Procedure for Assessing UHI Intensity in the Central Business District of Accra

James Gyasi- Addo, Amar Bennadji

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 42-61
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530259

Aim: The study aims at developing a procedure or method for assessing Urban Heat Island (UHI) in the CBD.

Study Design:  Mobile traverse.

Place and Duration of Study: The Scott Sutherland School, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee road, Aberdeen, between December 2018 and September 2019.

Methodology: It entails a review of various UHI types and the methods for measuring them, thereby considering method(s) that would be highly suitable. Weather data measurements are taken by mobile traverse, with a sensor mounted at a level of 1.5 m above the ground. Reference data were recorded at a monitoring point outside Accra. In the study, the dynamics of the UHI intensities within the various local climate zones are analysed. Various analytical approaches are explored for further investigation into the trends in the climatic variations and possible impact of the morphological changes in the urban fabric.                                                                                                                                                                           

Results: Recordings at: Anyaa-NIC, Kwashieman, Jubilee House, Supreme Court, Ministries, National Theatre, Advantage Place, Ridge Hospital and Electoral Commission showed negative deviations between −1 and −2°C from the city’s long-term average temperature. It was noticed that at Advantage Place, which is in open high-rise (LCZ4) development area, the presence of big trees showed lower UHI intensity in comparison with the intensities observed at Jubilee House and Novotel which both belong to the same local climate zone (LCZ).

Conclusion: This study reveals the presence of UHI in Accra and highlights the importance of using the LCZ classification system. It also highlights the high impact of urbanization on the local climate of the city.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modification and Optimization of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Roasting Machine

A. Musa, O. A. Adetola, O. J. Olukunle, A. M. Akintade

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 71-83
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530260

Roasting of groundnut is essential to ensure quality improvement, easy handling, safe storage, further processing, and value addition of the product. Therefore, the aim of the study was modified and optimized a groundnut roasting machine. Standard design parameters were used for the design modification. The design of the experiment had 27 runs. Machine speed (6.60, 12.80 and 19 rpm), roasting temperature (120, 160 and 200℃), and feed rate (120, 180 and 240 kg/h) were used as independent parameters, and the response variables include the moisture content of the groundnut, roasting efficiency, mechanical damage, throughput and quality efficiency of the machine. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) of the Design Expert Version 11 was adopted for the optimization process by applying the central composite design method for the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and optimized responses within the limit of the independent factors tested. Roasting temperature (200℃), machine speed (19 rpm) and feed rate (240 kg/h) were found as the optimum operational conditions which will optimally result in the optimal machine performance of 8.76% moisture content (r2 = 0.94), 76.99% roasting efficiency (r2 = 0.90), 2.46% mechanical damage (r2 = 0.86), 62.32 kg/h machine throughput (r2 = 0.98), 74.3% quality performance efficiency (r2 = 0.86) with the high desirability of 88%. An increase in machine speed increased the moisture content of the groundnut, roasting efficiency, mechanical damage, throughput, and quality efficiency of the machine. The study showed the optimal machine parameters for a groundnut roasting machine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Geoelectric Methods for Groundwater Depths in Igbogbo, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria

Rasheed Segun Lawal, Salami Muyideen Kolawole, Suleiman Taufiq, Sanusi O. Ramon

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 62-70
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530261

This paper presents the result of the geophysical investigation carried out at Igbogbo Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria. The geophysical investigation was done using the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 2D electrical resistivity imaging techniques, with the aim of accessing the groundwater potential and delineate the subsurface layers of the study area. A total of twenty-four (24) VES were conducted at different points along four (4) traverses using Schlumberger electrode configuration with half-current electrode spread (AB/2) varying from 1 to 270 m. In the 2D electrical resistivity imaging, Wenner electrode configuration was adopted. Geoelectric sections made from the sounding curves revealed three geoelectric layers with resistivity values ranging from 53Ωm to 764 Ωm. These resistivity ranges were lithologically inferred to be topsoil, sand and sandy-clay, clayey-sand, dry-sand with corresponding Q, H and K – curve type. The first geoelectric layer represent the topsoil with resistivity values varying from 117 Ωm to 825 Ωm and thickness of 1.0 m to 2.0 m, the aquiferous unit was represented as the second geoelectric layer composed of sand with electrical resistivity values ranging from 130 Ωm to 238Ωm with thickness of 12.8 m to 30.7 m having a depth of 14.1 m to 31.8 m, while the third geoelectric layer represent sandy-clay, clayey-sand and dry-sand with resistivity values from 53 Ωm to 764 Ωm. The geophysical results shows that good aquifer unit is located in the sand layer of the study area with a depth range of 14.1 m to 31.8 m.

Open Access Original Research Article

Theoretical Prediction of the Preferred Production Routes of 225Ac from Proton Induced Reactions on 232Th

Emmanuel C. Hemba, Olumide O. Ige, Haruna Ali, Sunday A. Jonah

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 84-89
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530262

Alpha emitting radionuclides have potential for the therapy of cancers because of their high linear energy transfer, and short range biologic effectiveness. Alpha emitter 225Ac(T1/2 = 10.0 days) is a potent nuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy. 225Ac excitation functions via 232Th (p,7np)225Th→225Ac, 232Th (p,6n2p)225Ac, 232Th (p,4nα)225Ac, 232Th (p,5n3p)225Th→ 225Ac, and 232Th (p,3nαp)225Ra→225Ac  reactions were calculated by Empire 3.2 code up to 200MeV and compared with existing data. No single nuclear level density with a pre-equilibrium model produce results which agree with the existing experimental data all through the energy range. However, a hybrid of the different nuclear level densities with the Hybrid Monte Carlo Simulation (HMS) and the exciton PCROSS pre-equilibrium models at different energy range provide results which are in good agreement with the existing experimental data. Hence the preferred production route for the direct and indirect production of 225Ac has also been suggested.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Using Hands-on Materials in Teaching Pythagoras Theorem

Evans Atteh, Emmanuel Acquandoh, Augustine Boadi, Emmanuel Appoh Andam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 106-116
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530265

This study sought to improve students’ performance in solving problems on the application of the Pythagoras Theorem using hands - on materials. It is an action research and the selected sample of the study was mixed gender class of level 200 (2A1 Class) year group, comprising of forty (40) students in Wiawso College of Education. It involved the use of pre –test and post –test as the methods for data collection. The pre-test was conducted after which an intervention period of four weeks, which involved taking the students through the concept of the application of Pythagoras theorem. A post-test was also conducted after the intervention, the scores obtained from the pre-test and post-test were analyzed by the use of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The findings revealed that after the intervention, students were able to overcome the challenges they faced when solving story problems and problems on 3-dimensions involving the Pythagoras Theorem. They could also identify shapes depicting the concept of the Pythagoras’ theorem and construction of squares on each side of a right triangle. From the findings it was concluded that the use of hands-on materials in the intervention processes has help improved students understanding and performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Status and ARIMA Model Forecast of Area, Production of Wheat Crop in India

Jhade Sunil, Dagam Sindhu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 117-125
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530266

This research is a study of growth status and forecasting area, production of wheat India. Data for the period of 1949-50 to 2017- 18 were analyzed by time series methods. 1949-50 to 2014-15 was used for the model building and forecasting. The data of 2015-16 to 2017-18 was used for validation of the model. Auto Correlation Function (ACF) and Partial Auto Correlation Function (PACF) were calculated for the data. Appropriate Box-Jenkins Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was fitted. Validity of the model was tested using standard statistical techniques. The performance of model was validated by comparing with percentage deviation from the values and mean absolute percent error (MAPE). For forecasting area, production ARIMA (0, 1, 1) and (0, 1, 1) model respectively were used to forecast few leading years. The results also show area forecast for the year 2021 to be about 28276.63 thousand hectares with lower and 34138.09 thousand hectares upper limit respectively, production forecast to be about 94087.32 thousand tonnes with lower limit and 114388.9 thousand tonnes of upper limit respectively. The growth pattern was examined by fitting an exponential function, linear function. The result showed that the linear growth rate compound growth rate is a positive significant trend for area, production. Production shows double of area in the case of compound growth function for the study periods.

Open Access Review Article

Role of ICT on Agriculture and Its Future Scope in Bangladesh

Sushan Chowhan, Shapla Rani Ghosh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 20-35
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530257

Agriculture is the oldest profession in the world. Since the historic human civilization periods, it has gradually developed. Technologies have enriched this occupation with the pace of time. Modern agriculture nowadays is so much dependent on ICT. A thorough review of secondary data sources; i.e. overlook of literatures from web, online published articles, reports, news etc. on some selective districts of Bangladesh was made to study the current features of ICT, its exercise and future prospects in the context of agriculture information and communication. Findings revealed that the majority of the farming group and thereby involved extension workers (SAAO) have limited access, usage, knowledge and capacity on the use of ICT tools and media. Farmers mostly use AICCs (Agriculture Information and Communication Centre), non-smart cell phones, TV and radio for agricultural communication. Conversely, SAAOs (Sub Assistant Agriculture Officer) used mobile phones, demonstrations and consulted AEO (Agriculture Extension Officer) for information and communications. Their utilization level of ICT based service was found much lower. Solutions to address these problems were found to be IT-based trainings, easy access and availability of ICT tools and services at a convenient price. Being an agrarian country; there’s a huge opportunity for improvement of ICTs in the agricultural sectors. These include, dedicated bandwidth of internet, electricity, reducing internet data charges, establishment of a data center, agriculture database, encyclopedia, GIS, RS, GPS, radio-based technologies, online-based agricultural (seed, fertilizer, pesticide, irrigation, marketing linkage etc.) management systems, IoT, drone, artificial intelligence, robotics, nanotechnology, machine learning, big data analytics etc. Incorporation of these high techs are now a burning issue for the future development of agriculture and sustain production in a rapid changing world.

Open Access Review Article

Ankyloglossia and Its Management- Need for Standardised Guidelines

Hemanth Kowdley Subrahmanyam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 36-41
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i530258

With increasing diagnosis of ankyloglossia, the need for uniformity in diagnostic criteria and treatment decisions like frenotomy or frenuloplasty has come to the fore. Involvement of multidisciplinary healthcare providers who use various non-standardised resources and tools in the assessment and decision making is debatable. Effects of ankyloglossia on breast feeding, speech and sleep are discussed in this article following review of available high quality evidence based literature.