Open Access Short Research Article

Study on the Flexoelectricity of BST Film Multilayer Structure

Chong Chen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 109-112
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i830300

Single layer and bilayer Y3+-doped Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3 (BST) thin-film cantilever beam, of which the single BST film thickness is 500 nm, was prepared on a composite silicon substrate. The flexoelectric coefficients of both types of BSTs were measured using a low frequency vibration method. The flexoelectric coefficient of the bilayer BST film multilayer structure is 1.66 μC/m, which doubles the effective flexoelectric coefficient comparing to the single layer BST. In addition, we discussed the effective piezoelectric coefficient of the BST film multilayer structure, which can reach as much as 2.08×10-10C/N due to the scaling effect.

Open Access Policy Article

Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrition of Indigenous American 3 Sisters Garden Compared to Monoculture Corn Production and a Cool Old Squash

Patricia A. Terry, Debra Pearson, Gregory Holder

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 99-108
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i830299

Balancing productivity, profitability, human health, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. After WW2, however, U.S. government agricultural subsidies have created cheap corn that the processed food industry has infused into virtually every aspect of the American diet. As a result, rates of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, kidney disease, obesity, and metabolic syndrome have increased significantly in the past forty years, especially among low socio-economic groups and non-Western peoples, due to the low cost of processed foods. Additionally, industrial monoculture corn production depletes soil nutrients and increases weeds and insects, requiring fertilizer and pesticide inputs that contaminant water, reduce biodiversity, and contribute to eutrophication. Multi-cropping, in particular growing corn, squash, and legumes in an Indigenous American Three Sisters garden provides significantly improved nutrition per mass of plant compared to corn. Squash is very high in carotenoids that have been shown to reduce rates of chronic diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. It also promotes eye health and improves immune function. Agricultural practices of multi-cropping also replenish soil nutrients and suppress weeds and insects, requiring fewer fertilizer and pesticide inputs. Finally, in an exciting opportunity, the ancient Indigenous American squash Gete Okosomin, “Cool old squash,” was grown and a complete nutritional analysis was obtained and compared to common modern squashes. Different stories of its origin are also discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response Surface Method in Evaluating the Extrusion Effects on Molecular Degradation and Physical Properties of Sago Starch

Ansharullah Ansharullah, Sri Wahyuni, . Tamrin, Muhammad Natsir

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i830292

This study was aimed to measure the effect of extrusion on the molecular degradation and physical characteristics of the sago starch by employing response surface method. The starch was extruded in a twin screw extruder with moisture contents of 25, 32.5, and 40%; melt temperature of 86, 95 and 104oC; and screw speed of 100, 150, and 200 rpm. The extruded products were then analyzed for degree of molecular degradation, reducing sugars of the water soluble materials, water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI), enzyme susceptibility, gelatinization endothermic energy (∆H), and specific mechanical energy (SME). Increased mechanical and thermal energy input received by the products in the extruder gave rise to a significant degradation of the molecular weight of the macromolecules. It was believed that granule structures of the extruded starch have been reshaped. The extrusion process conditions did not significantly affect the WSI, WAI, reducing sugar content, and ∆H. All extruded samples had a much lower gelatinization endothermic energy than native starch.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Analysis of Dielectric Constant, Loss Factor and Q-Factor of Selected Fruits at Microwave Frequency Range

J. T. Ikyumbur, A. A. McAsule, N. S. Akiiga, Z. E. Andrawus, S. T. Kungur

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 57-66
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i830295

The dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor and Q-Factor of orange, red and green apples were studied at Microwave frequency range. An algorithm was written using the Debye equations and the interactive problem-solving environment of Maple-18 was used to generate results for the dielectric constant, loss factor and quality factor. The variation in the dielectric constant, loss factor and Q-factor as both frequency and temperature changes respectively within   and  range were shown graphically. The dielectric constant of all the fruits were higher at lower frequencies, it then decreases continuously as frequency increases. On the other hand, the loss factor of this fruits were small at lower frequencies but increased to its peak before decreasing continuously for all temperatures. Interestingly, the fruits’ Q-Factor were higher at lower frequencies and temperatures but decreases rapidly as the frequency increases. The contribution of the space charge, orientation, ionic and electronic polarizations to the dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor and Q-Factor of these fruits at lower frequency and higher frequency were discussed. The effect of the excess sugar and water content on the dielectric constant, loss factor and Q-Factor attributed to the appearance of vibrational peaks was also discussed. This work hereby provides a guidance in developing new microwave processes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agricultural Commercialization and Food Security Nexus among Maize Farmers in Akure South Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria

L. O. Oparinde, O. A. Aturamu, O. Olumide Ojo, O. S. Kulogun

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 79-87
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i830297

Aims: An essential path to economic growth and expansion is commercialization of smallholder agriculture for the greatest number of emerging countries that depend on agriculture. Hence, the need to examine agricultural commercialization and food security nexus among maize farmers in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. This is due to the fact that maize is the most important staple food in Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Ondo State, Nigeria between March and July 2019.

Methodology: The sampling procedure used in the selection of a sample of 120 respondents was a two-stage random sampling procedure. Data for this study were drawn from the sampled respondents with the help of a structured questionnaire and interview schedule. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and probit regression model.

Results: The results show that majority (35.8% and 65%) of the respondents were between 31 and 40 years of age and males, respectively. Also, majority (52.5%) of the respondents had between 81 and 100% level of commercialization, while 54.2% of the respondents were food insecure. Furthermore, household size, year of schooling, level of commercialization, farming experience, non-farm activities, and market information had significant influence on food security status of the respondents in the study area.

Conclusion: In conclusion, agricultural commercialization is capable of swelling the likelihood of being food secure. Therefore, policies and necessary supports that can enhance agricultural commercialization among maize farmers should be put in place by individuals, government and non-governmental organizations in order to alleviate the menace of food insecurity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Post-Harvest Loses and Socioeconomic Sustenance of Yam Farmers in Southern Agricultural Zone of Nasarawa State

D. A. Iorzua, A. A. Ikwuba, J. T. Aan, S. C. Nwafor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 88-98
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i830298

Aims: The study determined the effect of post-harvest losses of yam on the socio-economic sustenance of farmers in Nasarawa State Nigeria. It also described the socio-economic status of farmers; determined the average quantities of yam lost for the years in review (2014-2018).

Study Design: The study employed the use of cross sectional design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Nasarawa state, Nigeria between October 2019 to June 2020.

Methodology: Using the multistage sampling technique, data for the study were collected from a sample of three hundred and eighty seven (387) respondents.

Results: That majority of the respondents (322) 83%, were male, and within the age range of 31-40 years 158(41%) followed by the age bracket of 41-50: 97(25%); 323(84%) of the respondents were married with average household size of 8.0 persons per household while 87% of the respondents have had one form of formal education or the other.

The Ordinary Least Square result of the effect of postharvest losses on the socioeconomic sustenance of the respondents revealed that the coefficient of simple determination (r2) was 0.850which implies that 85.00% of the variations in the socioeconomic sustenance of the respondents was explained by the independent variable included in the model (post-harvest losses) while 15.00% unexplained was due to error. F-prob. value of 0.0000 was observed from the analysis which is less than 0.05, indicating that the variables included in the estimated regression model were correct and significant at 1% significant level. The coefficient of post-harvest losses with the value of (-4.327) was statistically significant and negatively related to the socioeconomic sustenance of the respondents at 1 percent.

Conclusion: The study concluded that there is a relationship between the post-harvest losses and socioeconomic sustenance of farmers. Therefore, the relevant government and agricultural agencies, Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Community Based Organizations (CBOs) as well as individuals need to strengthen their effort toward reducing post-harvest losses of yam by educating through demonstration and encouraging farmer to use modern technologies and materials in yam storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Forest Canopy Cover Assessment and Tree Benefits in Okomu National Park, Nigeria

O. J. Pelemo, O. J. Aigbokhan, N. C. Isienyi, O. M. Ogoliegbune, J. O. Mephors

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 113-121
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i830301

The functions and benefits of forest canopy cannot be over-emphasized. Hence, there is need for the assessment of forest canopy cover and tree benefits in Okomu National Park, Nigeria. Assessment of different land cover types, quantification of forest trees and the environmental services they provided and lastly, the monetary value of environmental services provided by the forest was estimated. The Okomu National Park shapefile was used to determine the ‘Define Project Area’ tool and Google Mapmaker to determine and cross reference boundary. An i-Tree Canopy software was used to analysis tree canopy coverage throughout Okomu National Park, Nigeria. This study derived eight (8) specific categories of tree canopy data which includes annual benefits based on canopy cover percentages. The categories include: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter greater than 2.5 microns and less than 10 microns (PM10*), carbon dioxide sequestered annually in trees (CO2seq) was 369,974.94T, while carbon dioxide stored in trees) CO2stor) (not an annual rate) was 9,291,459.06T. Carbon monoxide (CO) has the least amount in tonnes with 33.33T. The particulate matter category less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) which has less quantity had more monetary value (USD523,66835) than particulate matter greater than 2.5 microns and less than 10 microns (PM10*) with monetary value of USD183,90714.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical and Social Demographic Factors Affecting Utilization of Pit Latrine in Tigania East, Meru County, Kenya

Sylvia M. Nkatha, Eric M. Muchiri, Patrick Kubai, Jane Rutto

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 122-132
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i830302

Introduction: Globally, poor sanitation is the cause of childhood diseases. Annually, more than 19,500 people die from diarrhea of which 17,100 are children. Diarrhea, which accounts for 16% of deaths among the children below 5 years, is highly linked to open defecation (OD). Poor excreta disposal remains a major challenge to improved sanitation and hygiene in many communities of Kenya and therefore they continue to practice open defecation. Construction and utilization of a latrine at home is a protective factor for communicable diseases.  About 52% of the population practice proper utilization of latrine in low-income countries. Improper utilization of latrines leads to the contamination of the water sources. Availability of a pit latrine does not guarantee utilization because other factors like functionality and distance influence its use. Furthermore, the availability and use of the latrine depends on maintenance practices of the latrines and cleanliness as well as the quality of housing and household compound.

Aims: To analyze the physical and social demographic factors influencing the utilization of pit latrines in Tigania East Sub-County, Meru County, Kenya.

Study Design:  The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Tigania East Sub-County, Meru County, Kenya shown in Fig. 3. Household survey was carried out between June 2018 and December 2019.

Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey involving 369 respondents selected by systematic random sampling from different households across the sub-county was utilized. Data collection was done using a structured questionnaire administered in English and a spot observation checklist. All data generated was entered, validated and analyzed using SPSS using SPSS Software Version 23.  Descriptive analysis was done during the calculation of measures of central tendency and proportions. Regression analysis was used in the determination of any association between the socio-demographic factors and the utilization of latrines.

Results: Ownership, location and functionality of the pit latrine were positively associated with utilization (OR=2.127, OR=1.53, OR=4.36, P=.00). Households that owned pit latrines were 2 times likely to utilize the pit latrines than those without a pit latrine. Moreover, household size, gender, and employment were positively related to utilization (R=0.502, P=.00). High construction costs challenges were 7 times linked to open defecation practices. Households with less than 6 members were 2.35 times more likely to utilize the pit latrine compared to those with 7-12 members (OR=2.35, X²=13.573, P=.00).

Conclusion: Interventions should target households with more than 7 members. A call for partnerships between government and donors to improve household income, water sources, and sanitation practices in Tigania East Sub-County is necessary. A call for funding projects related to pour-flush pit latrines and wet technologies to enhance utilization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drought Monitoring Using Rainfall, Evapotranspiration and Streamflow Data: A Case Study of Kaduna River Catchment Area (Nigeria)

A. Dare, E. J. Zakka, Maikano Samson, A. O. Afolabi, S. O. Okechalu, B. Amos

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 133-144
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i830303

Drought is defined as the lack of adequate precipitation, either rain or snow that causes reduced soil moisture or groundwater, diminished streamflow, crop damage and a general water shortage. The objective of this study focuses on meteorological and hydrological drought monitoring in river Kaduna catchment area. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) drought indices were used to characterize meteorological drought while Streamflow Drought Index (SDI) was used for hydrological drought monitoring for a period of 34 years (1967 – 2001). DrinC software, a drought indices calculator, was used for the calculation of SPI, RDI, and SDI respectively. The drought severity classification based on meteorological and hydrological drought indices gave 33% and 37% drought conditions period with the year 1967 – 2001. Based on these indexes, the drought characteristics of the catchment area were investigated by analyzing meteorological data from 1967 to 2001. The results of this analysis show that more non-drought/normal conditions were predominant than drought conditions. During the period under study (34 years), only one-year return period of extreme drought condition.

Open Access Review Article

Sustainability as an Important Tool in Organisational Management: A Review of Literature

E. A. G. Sumanasiri

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 11-33
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i830293

This study aims to review the existing literature on organisational sustainability to understand diverse concepts related to organisational sustainability and its evolution. To achieve these objectives, the researcher has reviewed more than one hundred and fifty peer reviewed journal articles related to organisational sustainability that were published between 1987 and 2020. Findings of the literature review confirmed that there were diverse definitions of organisational sustainability and that organisational sustainability is in the process of evolution. Further, this review of literature confirmed the importance of stakeholder engagement in sustainability related decision making at the organisational level. The long term perspective has become a key concern when implementing sustainability in organisations; it has, however, become one of the biggest sources of worry for organisational leadership in this millennium as well. National cultural values and organisational culture are also identified in the literature as influencing leadership decisions related to organisational sustainability. Hence, this literature review confirmed that there are no best solutions or strategies in achieving organisational sustainability, though managers should adopt holistic perspectives and develop innovative solutions to deal with sustainability issues unique to their own organisations. Therefore, it can be concluded that organisational leadership implemented according to a holistic perspective would facilitate excellent results in establishing organisational sustainability. Future research should be directed towards understanding organisational sustainability in a context specific manner rather than using a generalised approach.

Open Access Review Article

Biosorption of Bromo-based Dyes from Wastewater Using Low-Cost Adsorbents: A Review

Ebenezer Olujimi Dada, Ilesanmi Ademola Ojo, Abass Olanrewaju Alade, Tinuade Jolaade Afolabi, Monsurat Omolola Jimoh, Monsuru Olatunji Dauda

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 34-56
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i830294

The dyes in the effluents discharged into water bodies, aimlessly, are displeasing aesthetically and pose hazards to aquatic communities. The use of adsorption process has been adopted for effective treatment of wastewater containing dyes. The removal of Bromophenol blue (BPB), Bromocresol green (BCG), Bromocresol purple (BCP), and Bromothymol blue (BTB) dyes (a family of triarylmethane dyes) through adsorption process using several cheaply available non-conventional agricultural-waste based adsorbents was reviewed in this report. The gaps in the treatment trend further indicate the prospect of adapting various lignocellulose and other biogenic materials for the removal of Bromo-based dyes from wastewater.

Open Access Review Article

A Review to Identify the Gaps in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV Services in Nigeria

A. F. Chizoba, P. O. U. Adogu, H. N. Chineke

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 67-78
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i830296

Background: Nigeria has the second largest burden of maternal to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) in the world at a rate of 30% and has the largest burden of paediatric HIV infection globally at the rate of 10%. Effective prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) can drastically reduce the paediatric HIV infection to 2%. However, recent evidence reveals yawning gaps in the PMTCT services in Nigeria, where out of estimated 9.2 million pregnancies, only about 3 million received HIV counselling and testing (HCT). This review is to unravel the unmet needs for PMTCT of HIV services in Nigeria.

Methods: Keywords from objectives of review are MTCT and PMTCT which were used to search for related literatures through online libraries of national and international journals; Medline and PubMed including google. 62 related literatures/studies were initially generated and then narrowed down to 19 literatures were selected which met the inclusion criteria- less than 10 year and related to objective of review.

Findings: There are unmet needs for PMTCT of HIV services in Nigeria due to challenges like low HCT/PMTCT service uptake (35.5%), low HCT/PMTCT service delivery facilities (27%), low ANC (58%) and low (35%) delivery in formal health setting.

Conclusion: PMTCT target in Nigeria has not been met. Regular training of existing health workforce including the TBAs and the adoption of the recommendations for an HIV-free generation will bridge the HCT / PMTCT of HIV services gap identified in this review.