Open Access Short communication

Cryptosporidiosis: A Potential Anti-diarrheal Natural Product Drug Discovery Journey in Ghana, West Africa

Senyo K. Botchie, Andrew G. Mtewa, Irene Ayi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 85-93
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930311

The overwhelming resistance to current drugs and the exhaustion of drug development interventions, as well as synthetic libraries, have compelled researchers to resort to the use of novel drug candidates derived from natural products. Cryptosporidium, the causative organism of Cryptosporidiosis, is no exception. The diarrhea-causing parasite is known to be the leading cause of deaths in children below age 5 in developing countries like Ghana and second to rotavirus as the causative agent for diarrhea in newborn calves and infants.

Currently, the only FDA approved drug for the treatment of Cryptosporidiosis is Nitazoxanide. It is, therefore, needful to develop novel alternative candidates as it could aid in the decrease in child mortality and malnutrition in developing countries. Even though there have been significant limitations into anti-cryptosporidial drug development in vitro and in vivo, essential advancements are being made of which this article addresses the need for research into natural products. Some studies outlined in this paper has stated potential plant extracts showing anti-cryptosporidiosis efficacy. With the wealth of medicinal plant products and Cryptosporidium in vitro culture expertise available in our labs at Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical research we are certain of making potential significant strides in the world of natural product Cryptosporidium drug discovery in Africa.

Open Access Policy Article

Celebrating the World Breastfeeding Week in the Era of COVID-19 Pandemic in Southern Nigeria: Lessons Learned

A. R. Nte, G. K. Eke

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 46-57
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930308

Background: The annual World Breastfeeding Week (WBW) celebration has been a period of massive interaction with stakeholders through various means and sharing of information related to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding since its inception in 1992. However, with the advent of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and subsequent uncertainties about the fate of breastfeeding on one hand, and the imposed measures for COVID-19 infection prevention and control on the other, there was need to modify the traditional way of celebrating the Week to ensure that knowledge about the COVID-19-breastfeeding dyad is communicated to relevant stakeholders while complying with the COVID-19 preventive protocols.

Aims: To share experiences and document lessons learned from the celebration of the 2020 WBW which can be reflected upon and used for improving on strategies to protect, promote and support breastfeeding even amidst the restrictions imposed by the protocols for the prevention and control of COVID-19 infection.

Place of Study: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Nigeria.

Methodology: The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) Committee of the UPTH has celebrated the annual WBW every 1st to 7th August for the past 22 years (1997-2019). The reports of events of previous WBW Celebrations were retrieved and the format of the various activities was compared with that of activities for the 2020 WBW Celebration, which took place in the era of COVID-19 pandemic. The findings are presented in tables.

Results: Activities for the celebration of WBW in the pre-COVID-19 era usually included physical meetings for the sensitisation of the hospital communities/stakeholders, radio/television sessions, information sharing in various places of religious activities and a rally to interact with the community people. During the COVID-19 pandemic, new strategies for celebration of the WBW were adopted, including among others, virtual meetings, decentralisation of sensitisation of the hospital’s clientele and a physical meeting for the sensitisation of the Hospital Management Committee. Positive outcomes of the 2020 Celebration included the management’s commitment to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding, participation in the webinars by stakeholders from within and outside the hospital/Rivers State and establishment of collaborations with several partners.

Lesson learned included among others, the celebration of the Week by many stakeholders, the reduced cost of celebration due to the absence of physical meetings and their attendant costs. The personalised invitation of all departments, units and professional associations secured their commitments to breastfeeding. Decentralising the celebration facilitated the adaptation of the messages to the needs of different clienteles and strengthening of members from different departments to promote, protect and support breastfeeding in their work environment. However, the poor participation of the hospital community in the virtual meetings attributable to lack of experience and the cost of participation were setbacks to the targets of the Committee.

Conclusion: The era of the COVID-19 pandemic provided a good opportunity to engage stakeholders from within and outside the hospital for the support of breastfeeding as a safe infant feeding option in the midst of COVID-19 and introduced a new normal, the use of virtual meetings to promote, protect and support breastfeeding in a cost effective manner. The celebration of the Week reiterated the role of breastfeeding for ensuring planetary health which was being challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Open Access Minireview Article

Introduction of HCCI for Hydrogen Fuel Engines

Chuanhao Zhao, Yang Luo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 127-132
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930316

This paper is a brief review of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) model for hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines based on an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen internal combustion engines and HCCI combustion. It found that HCCI can be realized in a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine, meanwhile the HCCI can effectively reduce the emission of hydrogen internal combustion engine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing Household Environmental Health Indicators between Oil-bearing and Non-oil-bearing Communities in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Omosivie Maduka, Benson C. Ephraim- Emmanuel

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930304

Background: Household environmental health indicators have contributed to the quality of life of the populace in regions of the world where they have been made available. This study compared the indicators of household environmental health between oil-bearing and non-oil-bearing communities located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Methods: An analytical, cross-sectional household survey was carried out among 601 households in six oil-bearing and non-oil-bearing selected communities located within the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Multistage sampling was employed, and an interviewer-administered questionnaire used to elicit data on the household environmental health indicators in the communities. The scores across the six indicator domains were summed and categorized into acceptable and unacceptable status.  Results: Water sources in both oil-bearing 230 (76.4%) and non-oil-bearing communities 177 (59.0%) were sanitary. Sanitary sewage 250 (83.1%) and sullage disposal 210 (69.8%) was practiced by most households in oil-bearing areas. The minority of respondents in both oil-bearing 26 (8.6%) and non-oil-bearing 41 (13.7%) communities practiced sanitary refuse disposal. Households in oil-bearing communities had twelve times greater odds of having a satisfactory environmental health status compared to households in non-oil-bearing communities (Adjusted O.R: 11.70, 95% C.I: 7.75-17.65).

Conclusion: Households in oil-bearing communities fared better in all household environmental health indicators. There is a need to address the economic and social determinants of health among households in the Niger Delta to improve household environmental health indicators.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Bacterial Leaf Spot of Bottle Gourd and Pumpkin in Subtropical Zone of Himachal Pradesh

Kumud Jarial, Sujata Kumari, R. S. Jarial, Savita Jandaik, Deepa Sharma

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930305

To assess the prevalence and severity of bacterial leaf spot on bottle gourd and pumpkin, a survey was conducted in Hamirpur, Una and Bilaspur districts of sub tropical zone of Himachal Pradesh, India during the years 2018 and 2019. Data were recorded in terms of disease severity and fruit rot incidence. The associated pathogen from bottle gourd and pumpkin was isolated on nutrient sodium chloride agar medium and identified on the basis of morphological, biochemical and pathogenicity tests on bottle gourd and pumpkin seedlings. Disease was found to be prevalent at all the locations surveyed exhibiting a mean disease severity from 24.70 to 87.55 and 5.30 to 52.92 per cent in bottle gourd and pumpkin, respectively. Fruits of bottle gourd were recorded to be affected badly exhibiting a mean fruit rot incidence of 10.23 to 95.32 to per cent, while, no fruit rot incidence was recorded in pumpkin fruits. The colonies of the isolated bacterium were mucoid, circular, smooth textured and yellow in colour having a diameter of 2-4 mm. The pathogen was found to be Gram–ve and tested positive for esculin hydrolysis as well as protein digestion test. During pathogenicity tests, incubation period of 2 and 4 days was recorded on bottle gourd and pumpkin, respectively. Based on these studies, the identity of the pathogen was confirmed to be Xanthomonas cucurbitae(ex Bryan) Vauterin et al.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Waste Management System as a Sustainable Option for Managing Plastic Waste in Ghana: The Case of Madina-La Nkantanan Municipality

Ampadu-Ameyaw Richard, Nkum Richard, Anderson Kwasi Ahwireng

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 20-31
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930306

This study elucidates the current state of plastic waste management in urban areas of Ghana, with a particular focus on Madina-La Nkwntanan municipality. As a result of the current uncontrollable plastic waste challenge, the Government of Ghana, is seeking sustainable approaches to reduce th effect of plastic waste in the country. A number of arrangements, including various forms of privatization, tax regimes and public-private partnership have already been initiated as first step solutions to the challenge, yet management of plastic waste, has not been encouraging. Using a case study from one municipality in Ghana, this paper shows that domestic plastic wastes forms the second most generated wastes in the study area. The results show that the practice of separation at source, which is the first step toward dealing with plastic waste, was uncommon in the study area, although pockets of houses in the municipality and other places in the country practiced it. This article proposes the integrated waste management (IWM) concept, as one of the possible sustainable options that could help tackle the plastic waste issue in municipality. This is in view of the sustainable nature of the concept as well as its integrative way of dealing with waste. This reality has been confirmed by other authors in several countries. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Statistical Quality Control in Monitoring the Production, Packaging and Marketing Process of Sachet Water

Terna Godfrey Ieren, Samson Kuje, Abraham Iorkaa Asongo, Innocent Boyle Eraikhuemen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 32-45
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930307

Statistical process control is a technique employed to enhance the quality and productivity of processes and the distribution or marketing of its products. Sachet water is a product that has become popular and is being used as a replacement for lack of potable water. It is an alternative that is readily available, affordable but with questions about its purity, production and marketing processes. The objective of this study is to apply statistical control charts in monitoring the production, packaging and distribution or marketing processes of sachet water in Nigeria. This paper employed statistical quality control approach to monitor process stability in a Table Water manufacturing company. Quality control tools such as p-chart, u-chart, X-bar and R charts as well as process capability chart were use to observed field data obtained from the sachet water manufacturing company on important processes of sachet water production and marketing for 30 working days. This was done to check if the processes were in control or out of control and to verify the capability of the marketing process of the product meeting preset specifications. With this, the statistical control charts suitable for the processes were constructed using package “qcc” in R software version 3.6.1. The results from p-chart and u-chart showed that the production and packaging process of the product is not in control and hence the need for further investigations and corrective measures to prevent variability in the process and thus allowing improvement in the quality of the product. Also, the results from X-bar and R charts showed that the marking process was in statistical process control in respects of the product sales recorded by the four independent marketers, with no assignable cause of variation. It also revealed that, the product marketing process has low capability of successfully attending the preset specification limits in respect of the product sales and hence generating low profit for the company.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Hadoop Technology to Overcome Big Data Problems by Choosing Proposed Cost-efficient Scheduler Algorithm for Heterogeneous Hadoop System (BD3)

Abou_el_ela Abdou Hussein

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 58-84
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930310

Day by day advanced web technologies have led to tremendous growth amount of daily data generated volumes. This mountain of huge and spread data sets leads to phenomenon that called big data which is a collection of massive, heterogeneous, unstructured, enormous and complex data sets. Big Data life cycle could be represented as, Collecting (capture), storing, distribute, manipulating, interpreting, analyzing, investigate and visualizing big data. Traditional techniques as Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) couldn’t handle big data because it has its own limitations, so Advancement in computing architecture is required to handle both the data storage requisites and the weighty processing needed to analyze huge volumes and variety of data economically. There are many technologies manipulating a big data, one of them is hadoop. Hadoop could be understand as an open source spread data processing that is one of the prominent and well known solutions to overcome handling big data problem. Apache Hadoop was based on Google File System and Map Reduce programming paradigm. Through this paper we dived to search for all big data characteristics starting from first three V's that have been extended during time through researches to be more than fifty six V's and making comparisons between researchers to reach to best representation and the precise clarification of all big data V’s characteristics. We highlight the challenges that face big data processing and how to overcome these challenges using Hadoop and its use in processing big data sets as a solution for resolving various problems in a distributed cloud based environment. This paper mainly focuses on different components of hadoop like Hive, Pig, and Hbase, etc. Also we institutes absolute description of Hadoop Pros and cons and improvements to face hadoop problems by choosing proposed Cost-efficient Scheduler Algorithm for heterogeneous Hadoop system.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19 Pandemic and the 2020 Elections in Ghana

Frank Bitafir Ijon, B. B. B. Bingab

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 94-102
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930312

The paper explores the impact of the Coronavirus pandemic on Ghana’s election 2020 which will be conducted on the 7th December 2020. The paper argues that despite the fact that the pandemic has negatively affected the 2020 elections process, it also presents political parties and the Electoral Commission the opportunity to be innovative in their activities. The study adopts a content analysis approach and depends mainly on the desk review of related literature on the topic under investigation. The study found that the possible negative impacts of the virus on the 2020 elections include: low voter turnout because of the fear of contracting the virus due to human contacts at the voting centers and postponement of the 2020 elections if the spread goes out of hand. The impacts felt already include postponement of voter registration exercise from April 2020 to June 2020 and the ban on political activities such as mass campaigns.

Again, one positive impact of the virus is that it has made political parties innovative in the mobilization of voters through the use of various social media platforms. Now campaigns and other political activities are held via the internet. With such innovation, the paper proposes that the E.C. should consider online voting, postal voting, and early voting in the 2020 election as a way of reducing human conduct and overcrowding on the day of voting in order to reduce the spread of COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Uniqueness of Stationary Solution for Nonlinear Random Reaction-diffusion Equation

Sofije Hoxha, Fejzi Kolaneci

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 103-110
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930313

We study a nonlinear random reaction-diffusion problem in abstract Banach spaces, driven by a real noise, with random diffusion coefficient and random initial condition. We consider a polynomial non linear term. The reaction-diffusion equation belongs to the class of parabolic stochastic partial differential equations. We assume that the initial condition is an element of Hilbert space. The real noise is a Wiener process. We construct a suitable stochastic basis and define the solution of reaction-diffusion problem in the weak sense. We define the stationary process in abstract Banach spaces in the strong sense of Doob-Rozanov. That is, the probability density function of the stochastic process is independent of time shift. We define the invariant measure for random reaction-diffusion equation in the sense of Arnold, DaPrato, and Zabczyk [1,2]. In other words, we define the invariant measure for random dynamical system, associated with random reaction-diffusion problem.

Using the Variation Inequalities Theory, we prove the uniqueness of stationary solution for nonlinear random reaction-diffusion problem. The obtained theoretical results have several applications in Quantum Physics, Biology, Medicine, and Economic Sciences. Especially, we can study the existence of stationary solution for the stochastic models of tumor growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Retrospective Study of Investigation of Possible Predictors for Total Fertility Rate in India

A. K. Tiwari, Brijesh P. Singh, Vaishali Patel

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 111-119
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930314

Total fertility rate (TFR) is the most acceptable and widely used measure of current fertility. Since TFR is based on age-specific fertility rate which required the total number of births in different age groups as well as age of female. When the population is illiterate or older then the information on age may have some recall bias, misreporting digit preference etc., thus in this situation TFR may departed from the actual. Therefore, need some indirect methodology which enables us to have an idea about the estimation of TFR. In this study an attempt has been made to identify some predictors that the explain TFR and try to suggest the best combination of predictors to get estimate of TFR. The methodology used in this study is essentially based on the regression technique. The identification and acceptance of possible predictors are based on the coefficient of determination. The data for the major states of India from National Family Health Survey (NFHS 4) is used for the analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of an Intelligent Broken Window System for Dealing with Bus Fire Accidents

Shuman Guo, Henglei Li

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 120-126
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i930315

In recent years, bus fires occur frequently and accidents are often accompanied by serious casualties. Aiming at this situation, in order to improve the shortage of the traditional way of escape for bus and reduce casualties, in this paper, an intelligent escape system for bus through broken Windows was designed. The system adopts modular design, and a large number of experiments and optimization are carried out in dangerous goods early warning, fire detection and broken window effect test. The results show that the system can effectively break windows and quickly open up multiple escape routes in the case of bus fire accident.