Open Access Commentary

Attaining Excellence in Professional Pharmacy Practice-Pharmacists in Academia Must Take the Lead

D. E. Effiong, Mfonobong Alozie

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 60-67
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i130348

As societal needs change, so are professions adjusting and adapting their services to meet this new normal. The essence is not just to remain relevant, but to live up to their professional expectation and be impactful to their environment. In the constantly changing societal healthcare needs, Pharmacists as medicine experts and frontline contributors towards health care delivery, have crucial roles to play. From sound medical information dissemination to drug manufacture; from dispensing and therapeutic drug control to research and development and from sustaining supply chain of products to provision of total pharmaceutical care, pharmacists stand tall to provide needed healthcare services. Rendering services with professionalism is the desired path. But what does it take to attain professionalism in pharmacy practice? How can pharmacists in the academia harness their potentials to promote the path of service delivery with professional excellence? This piece showcases the role of excellence in the pharmacy profession highlighting the potentials of members in the academia in spearheading excellence in practice, thereby adding to the professional outlook of the pharmacist.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Solid - Phase System for the Extraction of Diazinon from Water

J. D. Nanev, R. Sha’Ato, J. O. Igoli

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i130342

A selected sorbent granulated activated charcoal solid - phase extraction was developed and used to extract diazinon from distilled water (TDW), distilled deionized water (DDW) and stream water (DW) was studied in the laboratory. Prior to the extraction, the half-live of the diazinon was determined in buffer solutions of pH 6, 7 and 8. The study showed that the half-lives were found to be 0.074, 0.022 and 0.077 hours respectively. Aqueous solution of diazinon was extracted in triplicate from distilled water, deionized distilled water and stream water using SPE systems. The extracted analyte was analysed by uv-visible spectrophotometer. The mean percentage recovery from distilled water, deionized distilled water and stream water using SPE 88.58%, 78.74% ad was 67.85% respectively while diazinon recovery using Liquid-liquid Extraction techniques gave a mean percent recovery of  96.60%, 93.80% and 75.54% for DW, DDW ad SW respectively. The mean percent analyte loss for SPE systems was 32.79%. The value was approximately twice higher than those obtained from LLE techniques with a value of 14.16%. The mean percentage recovery and analyte loss for SPE and LLE were compared. Similarly, the second order rate constant of diazinon of  pH6, 7 and 8 were 2.6 x 10-3, 8.8 x10-3 ad 2.5 x 10-3 M-1S-1respectively. The study suggests that granulated activated charcoal can be used as an sorbent to extract diazinon from water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological Assessment of Crops Grown in Soils Amended with Municipal Solid Waste Ash

G. D. Ibrahim, E. O. Nwaichi, G. O. Abu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 12-20
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i130343

This study assessed heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe and Zn) in sites and food crops (beans and groundnuts) harvested from farmland amended with municipal solid waste (MSW) ash. Farmlands with no amendments and crops grown on such soils served as control. Soils and crops samples were collected at full maturity to determine soil levels (mgkg-1), translocation in crops and accumulation index of metals. The crops were separated into roots, leaves and grains before analysis and heavy metals were determined using VGB 210 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Mean concentrations (mgkg-1) of studied metals were 0.053±0.03, 0.053±0.01, 648.55±1.07, 168.699±1.05, 36.514±4.66, 339.53±0.12, 232.331±0.69 and 363.482±0.00 in test soils and 0.010±0.10, 0.050±0.01, 83.333±1.00, 38.618±1.03, 2.913±0.00, 163.248±0.22, 41.579±3.01and 82.798±0.28 in control soils for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn respectively. Observed levels for test soils were significant (p≤0.05) in comparison to those of the control and were highest for Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe and Zn. Metals concentrations in the tissues of beans and groundnut grown on both sites were found to be decreasing in the order roots > leaves > grains. Levels of As, Cr, Cu, Ni and Fe fell below the WHO standard while Cd, Pb and Zn exceeded those set limits. Translocation factors for beans and groundnut cultivated on test site indicated effective translocation of arsenic from soils to the roots. Observed pattern has health implication for raised fodder for animal husbandry in such areas. Similarly, the geo-accumulation index of both test and control sites revealed they were polluted with Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Ni, Cu and Fe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strategies for Management of Certificates of Analysis of Corona virus Disease 2019 for Travellers in Times of Pandemic: Case of the Pasteur Institute of Côte d'Ivoire

Diplo Tchepé Flore Bernadette, Anné Blessa P. A. Jean Claude, Achy Brou Armand, Aoussi Serge, Yéo Alain, Golly Koffi Julien, Blavo-Kouamé Belinda, Yao Serge-Stéphane, Kangah-N'goran Asseh Tatiana, Dosso Mireille

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i130345

The Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) health crisis has not spared any country in the world, from the most advanced to the poorest. COVID-19 pandemic has exposed much vulnerability in systems and societies. In all resource-constrained countries, the response has been very complicated. The pandemic had to be dealt with very quickly with limited health and economic resources to avoid the hecatomb already predicted for these countries. In Côte d'Ivoire in particular, health and government authorities worked with state or private structures with infrastructure and human resource capacities to develop a rapid and effective response plan. Several measures have been adopted to reduce the spread of COVID-19. As a result of all these strategies, the number of cases of infected persons has been gradually decreasing. This new situation has favored the revision of certain restrictive measures, in this case the closure of air borders, which have of course been eased under certain conditions. Travelers are required to have a paper attesting to their negativity in COVID-19 test. Thus, Pasteur Institute of Côte d'Ivoire (IPCI), the reference laboratory for carrying out COVID-19 tests, was responsible for supplying a certificate of analysis to travellers. The purpose of this article is to show the internal process developed and different strategies implemented by IPCI to establish and deliver this document in order to meet the demand in the context of a pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Implementation of Drugs Management Policy in Public & Private Hospitals in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Assani Ramazani Raymond, Lutula Ndjadi Raphael

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 29-47
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i130346

Introduction: This study, which was conducted from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2018,           aims to assess the level of compliance with formal drug management standards at the Mangobo General Reference Hospital and the Kisangani Millennium Polyclinic and to verify which of                   the two medical structures successfully applies formal drug management standards more than the other.

Methods: The study involved 30 randomly selected subjects, 15 at the Mangobo General Reference Hospital and 15 at the Kisangani Millennium Polyclinic, as well as all the agents involved in drug management in these two hospitals in the Democratic Republic of Congo. For data collection, we used the questionnaire and comparative analysis.

Results: After analysis, we found that the formal standards of drug management would be impeccably respected at the Kisangani Millennium Polyclinic compared to the Mangobo General Reference Hospital. Furthermore, 87% of respondents confirmed the existence of the national list of essential and generic drugs at the Mangobo General Reference Hospital and 67% at the Kisangani Millennium Polyclinic. 73% of respondents confirmed the logistic cycle of control of drug supply at the Mangobo General Reference Hospital; 40% of the respondents confirmed that the managers of the Kisangani Millennium Polyclinic make greater use of the service criteria used to select medicines; finally, 73% of the managers use the monthly average calculation of the consumption of medicines to calculate the consumption of their medicines at the pharmacy of the Kisangani Millennium Polyclinic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strengthening Community Linkages: Basis for an Intervention Program

Aveliza T. Basibas, Allena R. Fabiosa, Maria May G. Aconga, Jennelyn R. Tentativa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 48-59
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i130347

Strengthening linkages and partnership in the basic education program is a remarkable development in today’s school. Indeed, problems and issues arising between the school, students, and parents are easily identified and ultimately solve. Strong collaborations of teachers and parents are of paramount importance to consider a lot of success to serve the needs of the growing number of youth aspiring to acquire quality education for their life. Identifying activities, programs and projects of the school-community linkages and knowing problems and difficulties between school and community is of great importance in going through the education development program in University of Eastern Philippines Laboratory High School UEP-PRM Campus Catubig, Northern Samar. This study was anchored on the theory developed by Epstein, et al. [1] at John Hopkins University, mentioning the six types of partnerships framework which is a useful model for analyzing and designing school-community-involvement programs. The main purpose of the study is to determine the extent of strengthening the school-community linkages-basis for intervention program in University of Eastern Philippines PRM Campus Catubig, Northern Samar.

A simple descriptive research method was used in this study. The full description of this study was premised to give a clear picture of the present status and condition of the statement of the problems under consideration using the inputs, process, and outputs strategy of the research. The main instrument of this study was patterned from Alcantara [2] survey questionnaire on identifying the programs and projects and in strengthening the school-community linkages as the basis for the intervention program of the school system. However, it was modified to suit the appropriateness of the instrument relative to the present study. Results of the respondents’ assessment were very significant in their perceptions that the activities and programs must be planned and coordinated by both school and the community in order to have a successful educational growth among the learners, as well as the community will be benefitted if the pupils will be all successful in their endeavors.

Based on the findings of the study, the status on the linkages between the school and community as perceived by the teachers and parents were “very effective”, the programs and projects of the school and community as assessed by the respondents to strengthen these programs,  there is a significant difference in the perceptions of programs and projects of the school and community linkages of the aforementioned variables, both school and community persons-in-charge must coordinate with each other by taking into consideration with the solutions offered, an intervention program was considered by the researcher as a proposed intervention plan offered relative to strengthen  school and community linkages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Re-Isolation Methodologies for Recovering Sporulation of Eucalyptus Pestalotiopsis grandis-urophylla Isolates after 14 Months Storage

Lincon Rafael da Silva, Marina Gabriela Marques, Paulo Henrique Pereira Costa Muniz, Thiago Alves Santos de Oliveira, Elizabeth Amélia Alves Duarte, Fabricio Rodrigues, Solange Xavier dos Santos, Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 68-77
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i130350

After long periods of storage, plant pathogen isolates lose their sporulation capacity. The objective of this study was to evaluate re-isolation methodologies for recovering sporulation of Pestalotiopsis grandis-urophylla isolates after subjection to a long period of storage. Isolates of P. grandis-urophylla were kept for 14 months on Petri dishes with PDA medium at 10°C. After this period, the isolate colonies showed reduced mycelial growth and no sporulation. The isolates were inoculated on healthy Eucalyptus grandis-urophylla leaves, and after ten days they were subjected to three re‑isolation methods: scraping of the lesions (S) removing of injured plant tissue fragments, followed by disinfestation (D) and without disinfestation (WD). Then, the purified isolates were evaluated for the recovery of its sporulation ability. The different methods for re-isolation resulted in the occurrence of differences among the isolates, showing that sporulation is an isolate-dependent feature. The three methods (S, WD and D) allowed the sporulation recovery of P. grandis-urophylla, even after these isolates have been subjected to 14 months.

Open Access Original Research Article

Information-Based Mobile Application to Tackle COVID-19 Circumstances

Sakhawat Hossain, Md. Nahid Hasan, Md. Nazibul Islam, Mamunur Rashid Mukto, Md. Shahnewaz Abid, Fahima Khanam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 78-92
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i130351

Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) ensures the ability of healthcare professionals by allowing them to remotely access each patient’s personalized and accurate data. The accuracy, as well as the speed of treatments and diagnosis, is greatly improved as well. IoMT also enables healthcare professionals to monitor the status of their patients’ health in real-time. The behavior of people can be recorded with the intent of getting an online diagnosis, thus managing their one’s health is more effective. Tools like sensors and tracking devices, telemedicine, remote patient monitoring (RPM) and also virtual assistance makes these things happen. Perhaps healthcare professionals are mostly benefited by IoMT in their professions. So, in the case of a pandemic (COVID-19), our proposed application can spread the facilities of IoMT among the general people. The main purpose of this application is to make a system that compresses the number of coronavirus affected people by the extent of awareness. People can track data of confirmed, recovered, and fatal cases globally and locally through this app. People can also get information about the nearest COVID-19 hospitals with google map and get their helpline numbers. All these can be very important for Bangladesh, being a developing country. They can easily make doctor appointments through the system. People can get information about plasma & blood donation and they also can donate their blood and plasma by a requesting process. Users' information about their health can be saved in the cloud system from time to time so that a doctor can easily get all the information. So, our proposed app can help to control the COVID-19 pandemic situation and people will be benefited.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction and Processing of Pharmaceutical Grade Microcrystalline Cellulose from Dracaena arborea Stem

J. I. Ordu, I. E. Udenze

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 93-106
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i130352

Cellulose is an abundant renewable biodegradable polymer regarded as a promising feedstock for chemical productions with its versatility evaluated as a useful structural and functional material for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. It is a straight chain polymer which appears in cell walls of most plant and consists of D. glucose units, with absence of coiling or branching and can be derived from variety of sources including: annual plants, microbes, animals etc. Three basic types of cellulose often exist in nature as - alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (ϒ). Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) sourced from cellulose, occurs as a purified and partially depolymerized alpha cellulose from plant parts such as D. arborea stem possibly by severe acid or alkaline hydrolysis. D. arborea plant is a palm – like tree of 1.5m height with several branches, often used as a boundary mark, a non-selective habitat and belongs to the family Asparagaceae, sub family Nolinoideae. With alkali hydrolysis of the D. arborea stem, the percentage yield of MCC from the alpha cellulose is 54.32%. Physicochemical analysis of the MCC reveals it to have a pH of 7.80 and physicotechnical analysis resulted in values as recommended in the official monogragh. Proximate principles of the extracted MCC, depicted percentage fiber content as 65.78% and low lipid and protein content as 0.6 and  0.4% respectively. Elemental analysis shows the composition of sodium and iron as 41% and 35% respectively but absence of lead and other deleterious materials. FTIR analysis suggests the presence of carbonyl groups, 6- membered cyclic ring (aromatic structure) with ortho and meta - OH substitution and long aliphatic chains. The x-ray diffraction study gave a percentage crystalinity index of 6.02 at 2q = 22 and 2q = 34.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Extracted Microcrystalline Cellulose from Dracaenea arborea Stem on Aceclophenac Tablet Formulation

J. I. Ordu, I. E. Udenze

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 107-117
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i130353

Micro crystalline cellulose (MCC) is a major derivative from the bio composite of natural materials such as D. arborea plant stem. It could be useful as a secondary binder and disintegrant in tablet formulation especially following direct compression technique anticipating it to provide high level of disintegration at low use level and utilizing dual mechanisms of wicking and swelling. Tablets of aceclofenac a BCS class II and non steroidal anti inflammatory drug (NSAID) which potently inhibits the cyclo oxygenase enzyme (COX-2) involved in prostaglandin synthesis was formulated by direct compression using MCC from D. arborea stem. Qualitative assessment of the plant extract was carried out and the presence of cellulose confirmed by the appearance of violet – blue coloration while the physicochemical and physicotechnical properties were comparatively evaluated with reference to avicel and corn starch. Three batches of aceclofenac tablets involving Batch A (D. arborea MCC), Batch B (Corn starch) and Batch C (Corn starch and D. arborea MCC in a 1:1 ratio), were implcated in the formulation. Physicochemical study of the MCC reveals a pH of 7.8, mean swelling index 1.14±0.05 ml and hydration capacity of 3.60±0.15 g while the pH of corn starch is 3.90 with swelling and hydration capacity at 5.09±0.03 ml and 8.26±0.01 g respectively. Quality control evaluation of resulting tablet was investigated and the wetting time of batch A tablets was 1.50, batch B 2.30 and batch C 1.80 with percentage moisture content (%) of 60.5, 56.56 and 57.8 and disintegration time (minutes) of 0.22±0.07, 0.35±0.051 and 1.60±0.286 respectively. The drug release profile of batch A, reveals an initial burst release within 10 minutes followed by gradual release while batch C had consistent drug release which was maintained although faster than that of batch A after 10 minutes but batch B had the least drug release rate.