Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Parental Involvement in School Activities in Secondary Schools in South-East Nigeria

J. A. Akuezuilo, L. I. Akunne

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530385

Aims: The study ascertained perceived parental involvement in school activities in secondary schools in South-east Nigeria.

Study design: Descriptive survey research design.

Place and duration of study: Secondary school students in South-east Nigeria, between 2019/2020.

Methodology: The study used simple random sampling technique to draw 520 (200 male and 320 female) senior secondary school II students from the total population. Specifically, the toss of die type of simple random sampling was used to draw the sample. The instrument for data collection is a structured questionnaire titled “Students perception on the extent of parental involvement in school activities questionnaire (SPEPISAQ)”. The reliability of the instrument and internal consistency of the questionnaire items were established using Cronbach Alpha statistics which yield an overall reliability coefficient of 0.88, indicating a high-level reliability of the items in the instrument. Data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation (for research questions). The t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses raised. The item analysis was based on real limit of numbers ranging from 1.00-1.49 (very low extent) to 3.50-4.00 (very high extent), and the decision rule for the null hypotheses was thus; do not reject the null hypotheses if the significant value is greater than the p-value, otherwise reject the null hypotheses if the calculated value is less than the p-value at 0.05.

Results: A grand mean of 3.14 which indicates that students’ perception on the extent of parental involvement in debate activities is to high extent. The standard deviation score ranges from 0.66 – 1.01, this shows that students are heterogeneous in their rating. The data analysis revealed that the significant value is greater than the alpha value (Sig. value = 1.021, P value=0.05), hence, the extent of parental involvement in debate activities in secondary schools is not statistically significant based on gender. The results further revealed a grand mean of 3.16 which indicates that students’ perception on the extent of parental involvement in school publication activities is to a high extent. The standard deviation score ranges from 0.59 – 1.11, this shows that students are heterogeneous in their response. The corresponding hypothesis tested revealed that the significant value is greater than the alpha value (Sig. value = 0.006, P value=0.05). This goes to show that the extent of parental involvement in school publication in secondary schools is not statistically significant based on gender. More so, the analysis resulted with a grand mean of 2.12 which indicates that students’ perception on the extent of parental involvement in school club activities is to a low extent. The standard deviation scores range from 0.49 – 0.94, this shows that students are homogeneous in their response. The result further showed that the significant value is less than the alpha value (Sig. value = 0.002, P value=0.05). this goes to show that the extent of parental involvement in school club activities in secondary schools is not statistically significant based on gender.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study it was concluded that, students’ perception on the extent of parental involvement in debate activities is to high extent, the extent of parental involvement in school publication activities is to a high extent, the extent of parental involvement in school club activities is to a low extent. The extent of parental involvement in school publication in secondary schools is not statistically significant, Also, the extent of parental involvement in debate activities in secondary schools is not statistically significant. Finally, the extent of parental involvement in school club activities in secondary schools is not statistically significant based on gender.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Risk Perceptions and Depression Related to COVID-19: The Comparison between Nurses and other Professionals in Nanjing, China

Tsorng-Yeh Lee, Yaping Zhong, Fan Li, Zijiao Tao, Tao Shi, Ji Ji

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 10-21
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530386

Background: COVID-19 is a deadly infectious disease that dramatically affects the safety of hospital professionals. Their knowledge, risk perception, and depression levels towards COVID-19 need to be understood.

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the differences in knowledge, risk perceptions, and depression related to COVID-19 between nurses and other professionals in hospital settings.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nanjing, China at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic with four standardized questionnaires, including (a) demographic data, (b) knowledge about COVID-19, (c) risk perceptions, and (d) depression. Data from the two groups of participants were analyzed by Chi-square tests, correlations, and t-tests.

Results: The mean correct answer rate of knowledge for nurses was 76.42%, and for other professionals was 73.94%. T-tests indicated significant differences in total mean knowledge score and mean scores in four out of five subscale scores (p<.05). All significant differences in scores showed that nurses' knowledge was higher than other professionals, except one subscale score, which revealed that nurses' knowledge of pets could spread COVID-19 was lower than other professionals. The highest perceived risk scores in both groups were contracting influenza. The second highest was scores on COVID-19 and H1N 1 the third. T-tests indicated significant differences between these two groups in scores of contracting these three infectious diseases, with nurses higher than other professionals (p<.001). T-test also showed that the depression of nurses was higher than other professionals (p<.000). Positive relationships existed between risk perceptions and depression (p<.001).

Conclusions: More education is needed to improve hospital professionals' knowledge of COVID-19. Since nurses' risk perceptions of contracting COVID-19 and dying from this deadly infection were higher than other professionals; further studies might help researchers understand the underlying reasons better. Hospital leaders should pay attention to workers' mental health and initiate proper strategies to reduce their depression related to COVID-19. Further investigation is needed since few publications mention the relationship between the perceived risk of hospital professionals and home and food accidents.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Severity of Malaria and Toxoplasmosis Co-Infections among Pregnant Women in Yaounde, Cameroon

Judith Lum Ndamukong-Nyanga, Kitio Falone Linda, Signi Todjom Chysine Lucile, Demanou Teubow Dolly-Misper

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 22-32
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530387

Malaria and toxoplasmosis are two diseases caused by parasites of the same phylum (Apicomplexa). They have severe consequences on the health of pregnant women and their unborn babies. As such, they are of importance for the public health, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and Cameroon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the severity of toxoplasmosis among malaria-positive pregnant women attending the Biyam-Assi District Hospital. It was a cross-sectional study that took place from May to November 2019 involving 232 pregnant women who voluntarily accepted to take part in the study. Demographic data was collected using structured questionnaires and blood was collectd by finger prick. Thick blood films were prepared for the detection of malaria and the Giemsa-stained slides were read microscopically. A drop of blood was used for the detection of toxoplasmosis using the  chromatographic cassette (Rapid Diagnostic Test) and the results were read after 15 minutes. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 24. The results showed that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis was 22.84 %. This prevalence didn’t depend on the trimester of pregnancy (P = 0. 08). The prevalence of malaria was 38.9%. No significant difference was observed for either the prevalence or severity of malaria over the three trimesters of pregnancy (p = 0.60 and p = 0.9 respectively). The prevalence of co-infection with malaria and toxoplasmosis was 9.05%. Women without toxoplasmosis were more prone to severe malaria (20.29 %) than their counterparts who had toxoplasmosis (4.78 %) and the difference between these two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.02). The severity of toxoplasmosis was not influenced by the presence of Plasmodium (p = 0. 20). It was concluded that the occurrence and severity of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women does not depend on their malaria serological status. However, the presence of severe malaria in pregnant women depends on their toxoplasmosis status. Indeed, women already infected with T. gondii are less susceptible to malaria than their counterparts who are negative for toxoplasmosis. These findings suggest that T. gondii in a person confers some form of reistance to infections with Plasmodium. It was recommended that the Public Health Ministry in Cameroon could include screening for toxoplasmosis among the routine test for pregnant women in order to improve on the health of mother and baby.

Open Access Original Research Article

Belief on Witchcraft and Killing of People with Albinism in Lack Victoria Zone, Tanzania

Edmund J. Kayombo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 33-46
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530388

Killing of people with albinism and old people has been featuring in Tanzania mass media and worldwide. The main cause of killing old people and people with albinism is witchcraft beliefs. Old women are reported to be killing grand children; whereas people with albinism were believed their part of the body when added with other potent traditional remedies brings fortune and prosperous. Witchcraft cannot be denied in indigenous African communities; however there might be other factors unexplored that lead to killing old people and people with albinism. The aim of this paper is to explore   other factors that contribute to killing old people and people with albinism.

Methodology: The study was carried in Lake Victoria zone, Tanzania using qualitative research methods. The main focus were to explore factors that lead to killing old people and people with albinism in addition to  current belief of witchcraft. The collected information were analyzed using qualitatively techniques

Results: The findings have shown any health problems including death need explanations that were sought through ramli. The ramli showed old people especially old women were noted to be killing grand children by witchcraft means. Other factors like wealth acquisition, jealous, misunderstanding in the day to day activities were also repotted. Whereas killing of people with albinism were due to the belief of that part of their body when added with potent traditional remedies brought fortune and prosperous to one requested. In addition it was noted that people with albinism were seen as bad omen or curse and were not wanted to leave.

Lack of education on causes of health problems and people with albinism seemed to contribute to this problem. Public health education on causes of health problem and lack melanin to people with albinism which is important for skin pigmentation is needed

Open Access Original Research Article

Remediation of Oily Waste using Soil Organic Nutrient Stimulant

Ofonime U. M. John, Samuel I. Eduok, Victor O. Nwaugo, Reginald A. Onyeagba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 47-60
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530389

Aims: This present study aim at assessing the efficacy of soil-organic nutrient stimulant in the remediation of oily waste.

Study design: Preparation of Soil-goat dung mix was used as stimulant for the remediation of oily waste. 

Place and duration of study: The study was carried out at the Department of Microbiology University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria in the dry season months of January - March

Methodology: Remediation of oily waste using soil - organic (goat dung) nutrient stimulant was assessed for 12 weeks using standard culture-dependent microbiological, chemical and enzyme activity assay procedures.

Results: The results indicate increased counts of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes with remediation time. Microorganisms belonging to the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Rhodococcus, Nocardia and Streptomyces were recovered from the remediated waste. The pH of the soil-goat dung treatment ranged from 6.5 ± 0.02 to 7.1 ± 0.05. Enzyme activity by dehydrogenase and urease were higher than phenol oxidase with time. PAHs were below detectable limits (< 0.01) and reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbon was 99.3% for the remediated waste.

Conclusion: Overall, enhanced microbial activities correlated positively with reduction in Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon and PAH composition which resulted in ecofriendly waste product. Soil-goat dung stimulant can therefore serve as a cheap alternative in the management of oily waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Research on the Monocular Ranging Method of the Leading Vehicle in Multi-weather

Yong Tian, Quancai Li, Shuman Guo, Gongrou Fu, Shichang Wang, Junkai Guo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 61-72
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530390

In order to improve the accuracy of the monocular distance measurement of the vehicle in front under sunny, cloudy, rainy, snowy, and foggy weather, an improved pixel-mapping monocular distance measurement method is proposed. This method is based on eight-connected domains to detect the front vehicle, obtain the line pixels of the target vehicle in the image, and fit the image line pixels to the corresponding real longitudinal distance function, and combine the fitted function with the internal and external parameters of the camera. An improved pixel-mapping monocular ranging model is obtained. Set up a test environment under different weather to verify the feasibility of the algorithm. The results show that in the four environments, the detectable distances are within 70m, 60m, 30m, and 40m respectively; the error of the improved pixel-mapping monocular ranging method is reduced by 0.6% on average compared with before the improvement, up to 0.92% ; The improved algorithm ranging errors under the four weathers are 1.8513%, 2.6987%, 4.0137%, and 2.5795% respectively, which achieves the purpose of improving the accuracy of the monocular distance measurement of the vehicle in front under multiple weather conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

People’s Bamboo Production Status and their Livelihood Improvement in Dimla Upazila, Nilphamari District, Bangladesh

Md. Rubayet Al Ferdous Noman, Pallab Goswami, Tama Rani Bhattacharje, Md. Sadekur Rahman, Saiful Huda

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 73-86
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530391

The bamboos are an amazingly multipurpose and useful group of plants. It is a fundamental part of human livelihood strategies in many places worldwide. This study focus was to know the state of bamboo, its’ production and the available bamboo made products, to identify the knowledge requirement for increasing the bamboo production, to identify the ways of livelihood improvement by bamboo production and explore the causes of bamboo declining along with suggestion to overcome this. Data were collected using pre-tested interview schedule from a sample of 105 bamboo clump owners. This data collection was conducted in Tepa Kharibari union of Dimla Upazila under Nilphamari district during 1st December 2017 to 15th January 2018.  Besides the descriptive statistical parameter, rank order was used for the analysis. The findings revealed that the bamboo production is declining at a gradual rate and has already decreased considerably in the study area. It is also explored that the local people mostly mentioned knowledge about better variety of bamboo is considered for increasing bamboo production. Furthermore, the means of livelihood is significantly influenced by bamboo production. The local people’s livelihood therefore, is mostly improved through increasing income and creating employment opportunities. It is warning that due to rapid increasing of residents/houses bamboo production is declining as there are not enough homesteads or fallow land in the study area to have a bamboo clump.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Cluster Frontline Demonstrations (CFLD) on Oilseeds Productivity and Profitability

Rinku Moni Phukon, Rizwanul Helim, Bipul Kr. Das, Manoj Kr. Chauhan, Pabitra Kumar Bordoloi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 104-110
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530395

The Cluster Front Line Demonstration (CFLD) programmes on oilseeds were carried out with respect to yield, extension gap, technological gap and economic returns in oilseed crops in Darrang district of Assam, India during 2016-17 and 2017-18 under NMOOP, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers welfare, GoI. The fields were selected from different villages/clusters of the district. The observations on selected parameters of demonstration plots as well as control plots were recorded through experimental designs (‘Control-Treatment’) of social research. The results reflected that the average grain yield in demonstration plots of the selected oilseed crops namely; Rapeseed & Mustard, Sesamum and Groundnut was more compared to farmers practice. The crop sesamum recorded with the lowest extension gap (1.9q/ha), technology gap (0.90 q/ha) and technology index (11.25%) followed by rapeseed & mustard with 2.95q/ha, 0.31 q/ha and 3.42% and groundnut with 5.7q/ha, 15.6q/ha and 42.3% respectively. The highest additional income (Rs. 31307/ha) in demonstration plot over control was recorded in cultivation of groundnut followed by sesamum (Rs. 13134/ha) and rapeseed  & mustard (Rs. 11019/ha). The results revealed that the use of improved varieties, scientific cultivation practices in cluster mode facilitates to boost the productivity and profitability scenario of  oilseed crops in the district by minimizing the yield and technology gaps.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Hardened Properties of Eco-Friendly Concrete Containing Ceramic Waste Powder

Deepak Salvi, Trilok Gupta, Ravi K. Sharma

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 87-103
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530392

Increasing infrastructural development has resulted into continuous depletion of natural raw materials required for concrete works. Natural resource consumption has been steadily increasing. Many studies have been conducted in various laboratories to find substitute raw materials that can be used in place of cement. In this article an attempt to study the properties of concrete containing ceramic waste powder. Many researchers found out that the hardened properties of concrete containing ceramic waste powder as cement replacement was improved. The ceramic waste can be utilized as an alternative to cement replacement in concrete due to presence of high alumina and silica. Increase in durability properties were observed with the inclusion of ceramic waste in concrete by several researchers. Inclusion of ceramic waste in concrete production showed better mechanical and durability performance as compared to reference concrete up to a certain percentage replacement limit.

Open Access Review Article

Investigation of Ecosystem Goods and Services Flows from Land: A Commentary on Experience from Watersheds in Iran

Ali Ariapour, Victor R. Squires

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 111-124
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i530396

This paper is about the experience gained in field studies  in four provinces in semi-arid Iran. We focus on assessing the flow of ecological goods and services (EG&S) in uplands that are the watersheds. The paper is in three parts. Firstly, we describe the geography, demography and climate to provide a setting for the work but we also seek to provide an explanation of the context for the case studies that form the bulk of this paper. In the second part we elaborate on the nature of the EG&S and discuss inter alia the use of indicators by which we gauge the flow rates of EG&S from the land and also briefly discuss the implications for introducing payments for ecosystem services (PES). Mention is made of the internationally-funded MENARID (Middle East and North Africa Regional Program for Integrated Development) with a focus on the Sustainable Watershed sub-project. Lessons can be drawn from this internationally sponsored program. The key constraints to identifying, evaluating and ascertaining the rate of flow of EG&S, especially spatial and temporal, are elaborated. Finally, we present data (both quantitative and qualitative) derived from field sites and discuss the observed trends and projected futures. We provide some recommendations for making interventions more effective and operational, via replication and scaling up, across the vast areas of upland.