Open Access Systematic Review Article

Lossless Image Compression Schemes: A Review

I. Manga, E. J. Garba, A. S. Ahmadu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i630398

Data compression refers to the process of representation of data using fewer number of bits. Data compression can be lossless or lossy. There are many schemes developed and used to perform either lossless or lossy compression. Lossless data compression allows the original data be conveniently reconstructed from the compressed data while lossy compression allow only an approximate of the original data to be constructed. The type of data to compressed can be classified as image data, textual data, audio data or even video content. Various researches are being carried out in the area of image compression. This paper presents various literatures in field of data compression and the techniques used to compress image using lossless type of compression. In conclusion, the paper reviewed some schemes used to compress an image using a single schemes or combination of two or more schemes methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Nutritional and Functional Properties of Squash Pulp Powder from Cameroon and Squash Base Biscuit

Demasse Mawamba Adelaïde, Assonfack Vanissa, Boudjeka Guenkam Vanessa, Djeukeu Asongni William, Dongho Dongmo Fabrice Fabien, Gouado Inocent

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i630397

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and functional properties of powder from 2 Cameroonians squash pulp species (Cucurbita moschata Yellow and Orange pulp, and Cucurbita pepo orange pulp) and squash pulp-base biscuit to promote the integration of squash in the diet to help fight against micronutrient deficiencies and non-communicable diseases

Methodology: The squash were cleaned and the pulp was blanched in boiling water for 3 minutes and dried at 60 °C for 24 h. The dried pulp was then finely crushed and sieved to obtain the powder. The proximal composition, the levels of macronutrients, vitamin C, carotenoids and minerals were determined as well as the functional properties. The powder sample with the highest carotenoid content was substituted by wheat flour in the proportions 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% for the biscuit formulation. Sensory properties (color, taste and overall acceptability) and total carotenoids content of the biscuit were then evaluated.

Results: The nutrient contents per 100g of powder were 1.65g, 6.38-23.36 mg, 15.70-20.54 mg, 102.56-119.65 mg respectively for crude fibers, total carotenoids, vitamin C and potassium. Water absorption capacity (WAC), Water holding capacity (WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC) varied from 7.50-8.25, 3.35-6.05 and 1.02-2.04 respectively. Values of swelling capacity (SC) and water solubility index (WSI) varied from 119-140 and 15-17.63, 314-348 and 22.33-24.9, 388-459 and 35.08-38.75 at room temperature, 65°C and 95°C respectively. Sensory analysis of the biscuits showed that the biscuit made with 10% of squash powder was the most appreciated and contained 2.29 mg/100g of total carotenoids.

Conclusion: Regular consumption of these Cameroonians squash pulp powder or foods formulated with them could help to combat nutritional disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Incidence of Substance Abuse among Youths in Cocoa Research Institute Community, Ibadan, Nigeria

A. O. Orimogunje, B. A. Ogundeji, E. E. O. Agbebaku, D. Awodumila, S. T. Balogun, A. Aboderin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i630399

Aims: This study hereby examined the high incidence of drug abuse among the youths in Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) community at Ibadan, Nigeria.

Study Design: Multistage sampling approach.

Place and Duration of Study: CRIN staff quarters and surrounding communities.

Methodology: A multistage sampling approach was used for the study. The first stage involved the purposive selection of Senior Staff Quarters, Junior Staff Quarters and Alata road because majority of the respondents resides there. The second stage involved using simple random sampling technique to select Twenty- two (22) respondents from the three locations above, making the total sample size to be Sixty-six (66) respondents. Data were obtained using an interview schedule. Descriptive (frequencies, percentages, mean values) and inferential (Chi-square, PPMC) statistics were used to analyze the data at 0.05 level of significance.

Results: Mean age of the respondents was 31.0 years, this indicates that most of the respondents were in their youthful age and very energetic. Majority (80.3%) of the respondents were male and only 19.7% were female. In the causes of substance abuse, prevention of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) ranked first on the list with mean (1.87).

Conclusion: The relationship between Sex (χ2=0.032, p=0.859), Marital status (χ2=6.905, p=0.032), Religion (χ2=5.052, p=0.025), indicate that there is significant relationship between Marital status and Religion and effects of substance abuse.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Soaking Characteristics of Chickpea using Ambient water, Hot water and Microwave-assisted Heating

Gitanjali Behera, Mitali Madhumita, Nayan Kumar Meher, Malay Ranjan Das, Sarthak Pradhan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 31-39
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i630400

Aims: Soaking followed by cooking is the main aspect of chickpea processing which reduces the time consumption in the cooking process for achieving the desired cooking texture and nutritional qualities. But soaking chickpea in ambient water is very time-consuming. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to study the soaking characteristics of chickpea in different soaking conditions.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Engineering, Centurion University of Technology & Management, between January 2021 to June 2021.

Methodology: The chickpea was soaked in ambient water, hot water, and microwave heating applications.

Results: The initial moisture content of the chickpea was found to be 14.39 % wet basis throughout the experiments. The moisture gain experimental was calculated and was found to be 45.21 % dry basis (db) in ambient water soaking. In the hot water soaking, the moisture gain was estimated to be 50.74 % db, 53.28 % db, and 65.18 % db at 40°C, 50°C, and 60°C, respectively after 360 min (6h) of soaking period. The moisture gains in microwave-assisted soaking at 0.2 W/g, 0.4 W/g, 0.6 W/g, 0.8 W/g, and 1.0 W/g power densities levels were found to be 44.78 % db, 64.44 % db, 81.42 % db, 106.36 % db, and 115.95 % db, respectively after 10 min. The Peleg model was found to be suitable for describing the soaking characteristics of chickpea at all soaking conditions with higher R2 values. The Peleg capacity constant and rate constant didn’t show any particular trend in all the soaking methods.

Conclusion: Among all the soaking methods, microwave-assisted soaking showed the best soaking characteristics of chickpea with less time consumption and with more amount of moisture gain. Therefore, microwave-assisted may be recommended for soaking chickpea which is a less time-consuming and energy-saving process.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Detailed Study on Matrix Sequence of Generalized Narayana Numbers

Y ¨uksel Soykan, Canan Koc

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 40-64
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i630401

In this paper, we introduce and investigate the generalized Narayana matrix sequence and we deal with, in detail, three special cases of this sequence which we call them Narayana, Narayana-Lucas and Narayana-Perrin matrix sequences. We present Binet’s formulas, generating functions, and the summation formulas for these sequences. We present the proofs to indicate how these sum formulas, in general, were discovered. Of course, all the listed sum formulas may be proved by induction, but that method of proof gives no clue about their discovery. Moreover, we give some identities and matrices related with these sequences. Furthermore, we show that there always exist interrelation between generalized Narayana, Narayana, Narayana-Lucas and Narayana-Perrin matrix sequences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Transferosomes Loaded with an Anti-Hyperlipidemic Drug

R. Pravalika, E. Hima Bindu, V. T. Iswariya, Sowjanya Battu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 65-71
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i630402

The primary goal of this research is to create transferosome formulations that contain an anti-hyperlipidemic medication. Simvastatin, the medication employed in the formulation, has a low bioavailability of 60% and undergoes substantial hepatic degradation. These are the deformable nano-vesicles which can deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs through transdermal route to enhance the Bioavailability of drugs which undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism when given through oral route which can increase patient compliance. Transferosomes are prepared and characterized by various evaluation tests like  SEM analysis, vesicular size,  surface morphology. After all evaluations done,  Out of 12 formulations F2 formulation showed more entrapment efficiency. The reason for this is that there are more phospholipids present, and as the surfactant concentration rises, medication release becomes more rapid. Our main goal is to improve bioavailability, which can be accomplished by optimising the concentrations of phospholipid and surfactant in this drug delivery system, resulting in a controlled release of drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Influence of Process Safety Culture on Employee Attitude towards Violations in Selected Petroleum Companies, in Niger-Delta

Akaninyene Edet Ekong, John N. Ugbebor, Bara K. Brown

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 72-83
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i630403

The study examined Influence of Process Safety Culture on Employee Attitude towards violations in Selected Petroleum Companies, Niger-Delta. A descriptive cross-sectional oilfields based study. Study utilized non-probability sampling method combining purposive, convenience and quota sampling techniques. Purposive sampling is centred on the intent or purpose of the study. The research was a descriptive cross-sectional study, the population was made up of a sample size of one thousand workers of the processing unit of ten selected International Oil Companies (IOCs) and Local Oil Companies (LOCs) selected by convenience sample techniques. The study adopted Regression analysis for testing and modelling the research hypothesis. Before carrying out regression analysis, multicollinearity was checked to know if it is good fit for regression analysis on SPSS IBM 20 version. Outcome of the test shows that; regression analysis was acceptable because the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) of the checked multicollinearity was 1.000 which means there was no awkward multicollinearity. This study adopted the 95% confidence level and 0.05 significance level. The study discovered that process safety culture influences employees’ attitudes toward violations in Oil and Gas industries with positive coefficient of standardized coefficient(β) of 0.397 and p-value 0.000 less than the significance level 0.05 and t-statistics being 12.354. It is recommended that ways to motivate employees to adopt the safety habit should be adopted and may be done using the carrot and stick method propounded by Abraham Maslow. Management must learn to choose the most suitable approach to motivate employees to abide by the safety expectations of their organisation. Awards can be given at the end of every quarter to the most safety conscious employee or acts of recognition or even monetary rewards. For employees who do not obey safety rules when positively motivated, penalties, fines, punishment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation of Biodiesel from Castor Oil and Performance Evaluation in VCR Engine

Debashree Debadatta Behera, Aman Kumar Gupta, Shiv Sankar Das, Ritik Kumar Bhatta, Avijit Pradhan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 84-94
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i630404

Biodiesel can be used as Alternative fuel and acts as Renewable energy source. Rapid growth in industrialization of developing countries is resulting in increasing demand for new and eco-friendly energy sources. In this present research biodiesel was prepared from Castor oil by esterification and Transesterification process. The castor oil biodiesel produced was blended with diesel to obtain B10.Performance evaluation was carried out in VCR engine and emission testing was done by Gas analyzer to know the percentage of CO,HC, NOX and comparison study was done with diesel and biodiesel blend. In this study it was found that NOx emission rate of biodiesel blend increases while percentage of CO, HC increases. Also various performance indicators such as break mean effective pressure, specific fuel consumption; break thermal efficiency was plotted with respect to variation of load by using VCR engine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reservoir Simulation Analysis of Pressure Depletion Performance in Gas-Condensate Reservoirs: Black-Oil and Compositional Approaches

Akinsete O. Oluwatoyin, Anuka A. Agnes

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 119-137
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i630406

Pressure depletion in gas-condensate reservoirs create two-phase flow. It is pertinent to understand the behavior of gas-condensate reservoirs as pressure decline in order to develop proper producing strategies that would increase gas and condensate productivity.

Eclipse 300 was used to simulate gas-condensate reservoirs, a base case model was created using both black-oil and compositional models. The effects of three Equation of States (EOS) incorporated into the models were analysed and condensate dropout effect on relative permeability was studied.

Analysis of various case models showed that, gas production was maintained at 500MMSCF/D for about 18 and 12 months for black-oil and compositional models, respectively. However, the compositional model revealed that condensate production began after a period of two months at 50MSTB/D whereas for the black oil model, condensate production began immediately at 32MSTB/D. Comparison of Peng-Robinson EOS, Soave-Redlich-Kwong EOS and Schmidt Wenzel EOS gave total estimates of condensate production as 19MMSTB, 15MMSTB and 9MMSTB and initial values of gas productivity index as 320, 380 and 560, respectively. The results also showed that as condensate saturation increased, the relative permeability of gas decreased from 1 to 0 while the relative permeability of oil increased from 0.15 to 0.85.

The reservoir simulation results showed that compositional model is better than black-oil model in modelling for gas-condensate reservoirs. Optimal production was obtained using 3-parameter Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong EOS which provide a molar volume shift to prevent an underestimation of liquid density and saturations. Phase behaviour and relative permeability affect the behaviour of gas-condensate reservoirs.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Analeptic Applications of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Bharat Kwatra, Harsimran Kaur, Joydip Majumdar, Mahek Shah, Mansi Upadhyaya, Riya Ahlawat

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 95-118
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i630405

This article is an examination of the Analeptic Applications of Omega-3. The scientific development and subsequent clinical applications of Omega-3 in Healthcare continue to influence researchers all over the globe today. This article examines the research done and published by researchers and scientists. Consideration of current trends and data in scientific queries and demonstrates further aspects of the applications of Omega-3 on various health backgrounds, including.

Cardiovascular Health: The study addresses the comparison of Omega-3 and Omega-6 in cardiovascular diseases. Higher intake of dietary Omega-3 helps activation, inhibition, and alteration of metabolic and signaling pathways which is associated with better cardiovascular health, while Omega-6 decreases the risk of coronary heart diseases and cardiovascular disease mortality.

Immunology: Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) have been found to show an anti-inflammatory effect in the body by downregulating the activation of various immune cells. They regulate immunological functions via eicosanoids and resolvins which are anti-inflammatory. External supplementation can reduce chronic and acute inflammation as well as reduce the chances of graft rejection. The regulatory effect is shown by modifying gene expression and/or signal transduction in human cells. They are also involved in altering the membrane composition of Fatty Acids(FA) and as a result, they affect the lipid raft structure and also membrane trafficking.

Joint Health: The study shows the effects of omega-3 and other fatty acid consumption in Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA), bone marrow lesions, and knee cartilage lesions. It notes the interrelations between synovitis, plasma levels of Omega-3 and Omega-6 PUFAs in OsteoArthritis (OA) patients along with risk factors for OA, which could help consider liable treatments for improvement of OA. The study highlights the importance of the Omega-6:Omega-3 PUFA ratio and clinical and functional outcome measures which can help us in better understanding the role of PUFAs and possible treatments for people with knee osteoarthritis while showing the effect of Omega-3 fatty acids on muscle health in RA.

Skin Disorders: Fish oils rich in PUFAs are reported to improve several inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. They have also been broadly reported as a potential supplement to ameliorate the severity of some skin disorders such as photoaging, skin cancer, allergy, dermatitis, cutaneous wounds, and melanogenesis. The significance of omega-3 in skin structure was proved by describing a syndrome caused by stringent fat reduction in the diet that leads to erythema with scaling, hair loss, itching, and increased water loss.